The amount of DEF used will be about 2% of the total amount of diesel used. Another way to think about it is that DEF and diesel will be consumed in a 50:1 ratio. (One gallon of DEF is used for every 50 gallons of diesel fuel burnt.)
How long does 5 gallons of DEF?
When compared to the amount of fuel used, DEF is consumed at a rate of roughly 2-3%. For a car with a 65-gallon gas tank, this means between 1.2 and 2.0 gallons of DEF will be necessary. DEF should be replenished every third or fourth time you fill up a five-gallon DEF tank.
How much blue DEF does a truck use?
What Is BlueDEF Diesel Exhaust Fluid, and What Does It Do? DEF, or diesel exhaust fluid, is a critical component of the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) process utilized by most medium and heavy-duty engine manufacturers to comply with EPA 2010 rules. BlueDEFTM is a harmless mixture made up of 67.5 percent purified water and 32.5 percent ultra pure automotive grade urea. BlueDEFTM aids in the conversion of NOx to nitrogen gas and water vapor, which are both safe and natural components of the air we breathe. BlueDEFTM is a colorless, odorless, and stable substance.
2. How much DEF is going to be used by my truck?
Every 300 miles, one gallon of BlueDEFTM is consumed. Between fill-ups, a truck with a 20 gallon DEF tank may travel up to 6,000 miles.
3. What happens if a truck runs out of DEF?
No. Running out of BlueDEFTM will not cause an engine to shut down or fail to restart. Engine horsepower will de-rate if the DEF tank is empty, hence BlueDEFTM should be added to the tank.
4. Does DEF freeze in the winter?
At 12 degrees Fahrenheit (-11 degrees Celsius), DEF begins to freeze. The engine will start and run normally if DEF freezes (no de-rate or malfunctioning lights). The fluid will be thawed for use by a DEF tank heater, which will have no effect on the engine’s operation.
5. Why are you doing this now?
The Environmental Protection Agency, OEMs, and several trucking fleets pledged to reduce NOx emissions in 2010 to help the environment. Most new trucks will be equipped with a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system to reduce NOx emissions. Diesel exhaust fluid is required for SCR technology (DEF).
How many miles does 2.5 gallons of DEF last?
To comprehend DEF, it is helpful to first comprehend Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR).
SCR is currently the most effective choice for dissolving filthy gases, NOx, and particulates emitted through the diesel exhaust of your truck or heavy equipment. SCR systems became a national requirement for all new diesel cars in 2010, despite the fact that the technology has been known for decades.
A single liquid-reductant agent is required for SCR to function: diesel exhaust fluid. DEF is a mixture of synthetic, vehicle-grade urea and de-ionized water that is injected into the exhaust stream of your truck or large equipment. It reduces harmful emissions by up to 90% by breaking them down into non-hazardous nitrogen and water.
You definitely have a lot of questions if you’re new to SCR and DEF vehicles. The following are the most frequently requested questions:
1. How Often Should Diesel Exhaust Fluid Be Added?
On the road, 2.5 gallons of DEF will last about 800 miles. This indicates that a gallon of DEF will last between 300 and 500 miles. You’ll need 1 gallon of DEF for every 50 gallons of fuel, roughly. One thing to keep in mind: don’t let your DEF dry out totally.
2. What Happens If Your Diesel Exhaust Fluid Runs Out?
All new vehicles include gauges and/or lights that inform you when DEF levels are low. If the DEF is not replaced, the engine speed will be lowered to as low as five miles per hour.
To be safe, it’s a good idea to keep a bottle in your vehicle so you don’t get stranded driving slowly on the highway shoulder. It’s also worth noting that diesel exhaust fluid is completely harmless. As a result, if you have some, you or your fleet’s drivers will be able to easily replenish DEF as needed.
You don’t have time to go out and get some? Wet hosing services are available from Ricochet Fuel to keep your crew moving when it matters most.
How many miles can you go on a gallon of DEF?
Registered. During normal commuting/driving, my DEF usage will fluctuate from roughly 800-900 miles per gallon to as low as 350-400 miles per gallon while towing heavily.
How much DEF does a Duramax use?
By trapping bigger particles, the diesel particulate filter (DPF) almost eliminates particulate (soot) emissions. When the filter is fully filled, the active regeneration process begins, and the exhaust gas temperature is raised by injecting and incinerating fuel into the exhaust stream, converting the collected particulates into smaller byproducts that pass past the filter. The actual intervals are primarily influenced by the type of driving. Active regeneration cycles are predicted to occur at 700 mile intervals.
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is an outdated technique that recirculates exhaust gases back into the combustion chamber to minimize NOx emissions. The technique reduces NOx emissions by lowering available oxygen and lowering combustion temperatures. The LML’s EGR cooler has a bypass circuit to ensure that flow is not obstructed if a cooler becomes clogged with soot.
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) – reduces NOx emissions by introducing diesel exhaust fluid (DEF), a urea-based solution, into the exhaust stream. Under typical operating conditions, the DEF tank is designed to last around 5,000 miles, while actual usage rates can vary greatly depending on the type of driving/operation. If the DEF tank is allowed to empty, the engine will enter limp mode (see below for more information).
SCR & DEF System Overview
A dosing nozzle, a type of fluid injector that continuously delivers DEF to the exhaust system, injects DEF into the exhaust stream. The DEF tank on Duramax LML cars is around 5 gallons in size and is meant to last around 5,000 miles before needing to be refilled. The DEF tank is positioned beneath the hood on the passenger side near the firewall in Silverado and Sierra pickup trucks. The DEF tank fill is placed in the gasoline fill door on Savana and Express vans.
When the anticipated range of the DEF fluid level hits 1,000 miles until empty, the DEF system will activate a series of LED warnings in the instrument panel display. As the DEF level continues to drop, more warnings will be issued. If the DEF fluid level is totally depleted, a “EXHAUST FLUID EMPTY” sign will appear, and the vehicle’s speed will be limited to 55 mph when it is restarted. If the tank is still empty after the second refilling, the speed will be limited to 4 mph.
DEF quality is also monitored by the system. An “EXHAUST FLUID QUALITY POOR” notice will appear in the instrument panel if the exhaust fluid quality is found to be poor (i.e. diluted or otherwise contaminated). If the fault is not fixed within 200 miles of driving, the vehicle’s top speed will be reduced to 55 mph, then 4 mph when the next refueling occurs. A “Servicing EXHAUST FLUID SYSTEM” notice will appear on the instrument panel if the DEF system detects that it requires service (i.e. one or more faulty components). If the system is not serviced within 200 miles, the next restart will be limited to 55 mph and the next refueling will be limited to 4 mph.
Diesel exhaust fluid is highly corrosive, and putting it in the diesel fuel tank can cause serious engine damage; never put DEF in the fuel tank. When DEF is introduced into the fuel system, it is routine procedure to replace the complete fuel system and clean the fuel tank. This repair price might be in the thousands of dollars. Although the DEF tank location on the LML equipped Silverado/Sierra is unpopular and accessibility is limited, it was installed to reduce such instances, particularly on four wheel drive 3500 HD versions.
The SCR and DEF systems on a substantial percentage of 2011 model year 6.6L Duramax LML diesels have frequent reliability issues. The DEF sensor, NOx sensor, and DEF pump are three of the most often changed system components. In addition, there have been reports of DEF freezing in cold temperatures. Failures of the NOx sensor were the most common recurring issue, which were usually diagnosed by a P20EE or P207F diagnostic fault code (DTC).
GM made major improvements to the design of the sensors in response to repeated NOx sensor replacements under warranty, and issued a 10-year, 110,000-mile guarantee on the upgraded parts. Owners of impacted trucks received letters from GM with warranty information, although not all 2011 Duramax diesel owners are covered by this extended warranty. The actual number of trucks affected and the VIN number cut-off for those covered by the enhanced guarantee are unknown. Similar problems have been reported and experienced with 2012 model year trucks, but not as frequently as the 2011 model engines.
How much DEF should my truck use?
When it’s time to change your DEF, all newer diesel vehicles include a dashboard warning system. To figure out how much you’ll need, you’ll need to know your engine’s efficiency.
When compared to the amount of fuel used, DEF is consumed at a rate of roughly 2-3%. For a car with a 65-gallon gas tank, this means between 1.2 and 2.0 gallons of DEF will be necessary. DEF should be replenished every third or fourth time you fill up a five-gallon DEF tank. The simplest method to avoid an issue is to simply top off on a regular basis.
How many gallons is a DEF tank?
The Clean Air Act of 1970 paved the way for the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been constantly evolving and enacting laws to address the country’s environmental requirements for 46 years. For many years, owners of three-quarter and one-ton light-duty pickup trucks were not required to install additional smog equipment. All of that changed in 2008, when the Environmental Protection Agency mandated the use of diesel particulate filters on all three-quarter-ton and larger vehicles, as well as biannual smog testing that included a visual assessment of the truck to ensure the DPF parts were still there. The rules were tightened even more in 2010.
Many people believed that the age of enormous power and torque was finished, and they resolved to never buy another vehicle. However, something fantastic occurred, as well as the polar opposite. Americans have proven to be adaptable and resilient. Every manufacturer worked out a way to reduce NOx emissions while still producing more horsepower and torque than ever before. Strife yields bread, and bread yields innovation.
The application of selective catalytic reduction was the engineering breakthrough. To break down the created NOx into harmless nitrogen and water molecules, the great majority of these systems use diesel exhaust fluid (a mixture of urea and deionized water) injected into the exhaust system. Since the introduction of DEF (Diesel Exhaust Fluid), also known as after-treatment technology, in the exhaust, the manufacturer is free to create as much power as they like. The DEF is kept in a separate tank that is insulated and heated, with a blue filler cap to identify it.
Despite the effort around technology breakthroughs, there are still two factions of diesel guys out there: those who have accepted the EPA modifications and those who are still adamantly opposed to any limits. There has been a transition to older used diesel engines or remanufactured diesel engines that have been grandfathered in for individuals who are unable to accept the modifications. The purpose of this essay is to lay forth the cold hard facts concerning DEF and to educate the public on how to make better diesel operator decisions.
What exactly is Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF)?
DEF is a mixture of 67.5 percent deionized water and 32.5 percent urea from a chemical standpoint. Urea is a nitrogen chemical that, when heated, converts to ammonia and is employed in a range of industries. Although urea is technically produced from a urine waste, it is synthesized for mass manufacture. The American Petroleum Institute regulates most DEF products. Let’s look at the science of DEF in combination with exhaust. DEF is made up of two parts: (NH2)2CO and (NH2)2CO. When injected into hot exhaust gas, the water evaporates, leaving ammonia and isocyanic acid.
STEP 2: With water, the isocyanic acid breaks down chemically into carbon dioxide and ammonia:
STEP 3: At this step in the chemical reaction, ammonia will decrease nitrogen oxides in the presence of oxygen and a catalyst:
2(NH2)2CO + 4NO + O2 = 4N2 + 4H2O + 2CO2; 2(NH2) 2CO + 3NO2 = 7/2N2 + 4H2O + 2CO2; 2(NH2) 2CO + 3NO2 = 7/2N2 + 4H2O + 2CO2; 2(NH2) 2CO + 3NO2 = 7/2N2 + 4H2O + 2CO2; 2(NH2) 2CO + 3NO2
How Often Do You Need To Fill Up the DEF Tank?
This is a question that is specifically dependent on the diesel truck’s MPG and usage. The usual average light duty truck will require 2-3 gallons of DEF per 800 miles, regardless of the load, according to the OE manufacturer. Most new trucks with an average miles per gallon rating of 20+mpg, on the other hand, will travel 8,000-10,000 miles on a tank full of DPF (10 gallons). Each vehicle is different; for example, a Dodge Ram has a gauge that shows how much DEF is left in the tank, while a GM truck has a digital readout and a Ford truck has a basic low DEF indicator.
Fuel models for medium and heavy duty trucks will vary, but DEF usage will be around 2% of total fuel consumption, according to Cummins Filtration. One gallon of DEF is used for every 50 gallons of diesel fuel used. Here are some forecasts from our friends at Cummins Filtration for Medium and Heavy Duty Consumption:
Where can you buy DEF?
Don’t be tricked by thinking that DEF can be purchased just about everywhere. DEF is typically sold in large bottles holding numerous gallons of the substance at truck stops. If you’re in a pinch, some petrol stations will have DEF, but don’t bank on it. It is critical to note that if you do not refill an empty DEF tank, the engine will shut down automatically. Because DEF isn’t offered everywhere, you don’t want to be trapped anywhere with an empty tank. TravelCenters of America, Walmart, Target, Love’s Travel Shop, SAPP Brothers, Flying J Truck Stops, Petro Stopping Centers, and Pilot Travel Centers, O’Reilly’s, NAPA, and Advanced Auto are all common places to buy DEF. We’ve also put together a list of the most popular DEF manufacturers.
What are the Pros and Cons of a DEF Truck?
DEF has few drawbacks because it is a relatively straightforward technique. However, because the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) are prone to clogging, they can cause a slew of maintenance and repair concerns. These systems are intricately designed, and even a simple blocked filter can result in pressure and temperature differentials that influence the engine’s overall performance.
The only disadvantages of DEF are the higher initial cost, added weight, and the need for more storage space for an extra gallon of the fluid. Better fuel economy, more horsepower, more optimized combustion, fewer regeneration troubles, less engine wear, and it only emits nitrogen and water vapor into the air are some of the benefits.
Is emissions production really an important issue?
Whether it’s a major concern or not is debatable, given that all light-medium diesel engines built after 2008 must meet with EPA regulations. Smog, greenhouse gas emissions, and acid rain have all been linked to NOx emissions. The DEF converts NOx into pure nitrogen and water vapor as part of the Selective Catalytic Reduction system (SCR). Climate change is a contentious issue, but we can all agree that adding additional gasses to the atmosphere of any kind isn’t something we need.
Will DEF Lower My Fuel Mileage?
It is natural to believe that any EPA-mandated alterations to the diesel engine will be detrimental, but this is not the case. The big diesel makers learned that they could fine-tune the engine in whatever way they wanted, then let the SRC and DEF remove the particles. The engines are designed with performance in mind first, and then the SRC, DPF, and DEF are added as an afterthought to remove what is no longer required. Manufacturers have discovered that engines with SCR technology achieve better fuel mileage than engines with conventional internal pollution reduction systems. Fuel fed to the SCR provides an additional supply of components to burn. It is possible to increase fuel mileage by as much as 5% to 7%.
Has this new DEF Technology Ever Been Used Before?
DEF technology has been employed in agriculture, industry, and large-scale power generation in the country for decades. The premise is the same everywhere: urea combined with heat produces ammonia, which induces a chemical reaction that reduces NOx by 70% to 95%. In fact, nitrogen-released fertilizer accounts for 90% of urea production. It’s worth noting that automotive-grade urea has a far higher purity level than fertilizer-grade urea. If a lower-grade fertilizer, urea, is used in vehicle engines, the SCR may disintegrate, causing the engine to fail. It could even cause ECM sensors to issue an inaccurate DEF Tank Empty signal.
Does DEF Evaporate After A Period of Disuse?
Yes and no are the answers. With the valves wide open, the temperature at which DEF combines with NOx exhaust immediately out of the cylinder head is between 1400-1600 F. The chemical reaction occurs at substantially higher temperatures than those experienced on a hot summer day. For example, converting the DPF to ammonia and evaporating it would take two years at a steady temperature of 125 degrees F. However, because DEF is roughly 2/3 water, any temperature above 86 F risks some evaporation. Unless exposed to consistent hot climes, you won’t have to worry about a gallon or two of the stuff going bad or evaporating from inactivity.
Is DEF a Toxic and Harmful Chemical?
Urea, the active element in DEF, has been chemically produced since 1828, when German chemist Friedrich Wöhler used ammonium chloride to treat silver cyanate. Herman Boerhaave, a Dutch chemist, was the first to detect urea in urine in 1727. Urea is mostly employed in agricultural fertilizers, but it is also found in the chemical industry, explosives, lotions, skin creams, hair removers, plastics, dish washes, and fuel cells. Humans are not extremely poisonous to urea and, as a result, DEF. Urea can irritate the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, but it is not dangerous. High quantities of urea in the blood can be dangerous to humans, however absorption of modest doses of urea, when accompanied by proper water intake, is not. In nature, urea can induce algal blooms, which can produce harmful fumes when it decomposes over its melting or heating threshold. When nitrites are mixed with certain oxidants, such as chlorides, they can create fires or even explosions.
What happens to the engine if the DEF Tank is empty?
The EPA now requires all diesel engine manufacturers to include a tiered warning system (internal gauges on the dash) that tells the driver how near the DEF tank is to being empty. The truck will stop working if you ignore the DEF warning. Some diesel engine manufacturers allow the engine to go into low-power mode, allowing the truck to “limp home” or limiting the number of times the engine can be turned over. However, the diesel engine would eventually fail to start. Treat the DEF tank as if it were a fuel tank; you don’t want to be stranded somewhere because you forgot to replace it.
Does DEF Have a Low Freeze Point?
At 12 degrees Fahrenheit, the normal 32.5 percent DEF solution begins to crystallize and freeze. When urea and water are combined in DEF, they both freeze at the same time. This is advantageous to the user because the DEF solution does not get diluted or too concentrated as the fluid thaws. The product’s grade is unaffected by freezing and thawing cycles. When DEF is frozen, it expands by 6.5 percent to 7% by volume. Freezing periods are accommodated by the packing.
What is the best method to keep DEF from freezing?
Keeping a gallon or two of DEF in your vehicle is totally safe, but it is not recommended. At 86 degrees Fahrenheit, DEF begins to degrade. It’s all too easy to forget about the DEF in the rear of your vehicle, and given enough hot days, the fluid can become unstable and degrade, but at a very slow rate. A diluted DEF without the 32.5 percent urea combination can be harmful to DEF and SCR, however this is a rare occurrence. As a result, on exceptionally cold days below 12 degrees Fahrenheit, DEF will freeze in the DEF tank. This is totally normal and will have no negative impact on the engine. The SCR systems are intended to give heat to the DEF tank, allowing the tank and related supply lines to thaw quickly.
Can I add anti-freezing solution to the DEF mixture to keep it from freezing?
DEF has a relatively specific formula consisting of 32.5 percent urea and water, but it also contains additional compounds in trace amounts to help stabilize the product. The precise chemical makeup of the mixture would be disrupted by an addition, lowering the NOx reduction characteristics. The DEF mixture’s ability to function effectively will be jeopardized by further blending, and the SCR system will be harmed.
How is the production of DEF regulated and can I make my own?
It is not advisable for direct consumers to make their own DEF. DEF is strictly regulated, has stringent standards for chemical purity, and comprises chemicals that are critical to the SCR system’s operation. DEF must be utilized with SCR systems and meet all ISO norms and API requirements, according to Caterpillar, Cummins, and Detroit Diesel, among others. The American Petroleum Institute (API) has a wholly voluntary program that confirms the chemical purity of DEF and that manufacturers fulfill ISO requirements. API Certification is achieved by all major DEF brands present on the consumer market.
What is the shelf life of DEF?
The batch of DEF will last around two years if it is stored at ambient temperatures of 75 degrees Fahrenheit with no large periods of exposure to heat above 86 degrees Fahrenheit. If a package of DEF is heated over an extended amount of time, the fluid will last about a year.
Who are the major manufacturers of DEF Fluid?
DEF Fluid is made by a variety of companies. “Oilmen Truck Tanks,” a website, has collected a list of 13 main manufacturers. DEF is available for $2-$3 per gallon at most big truck stops, auto parts stores, and convenience stores.
How can you determine the age of a container of DEF?
A manufacturers date can be found somewhere on every DEF package. It’s most likely near the bottom of the front of the packaging. This date code will reveal the precise date the batch was manufactured, as well as the age of the DEF bottle. A laser code is inscribed on the bottle of one gallon containers. A little date code is frequently placed on the product label of larger 2-5 gallon tanks. A larger label will be put on the side or top of larger DEF fluid drums (55 gallons or more) and totes (275-355 gallons). Reading a manufacturer’s code is difficult, as each one is slightly different. The batch number is usually represented by the first digit of the date code, and the next six digits reflect the date the batch was filled at the factory.
How do you identify a DEF Filling Pump Vs. a Diesel Fuel Pump?
A number of safeguards have been put in place to prevent diesel engine fuel from being injected into the DEF tank and vice versa. “The color “green” is the standard for diesel filling stations and pumps around the world. “The color “blue” has been chosen as the symbol for DEF fluid. DEF is dispensed by a normal 19 mm nozzle, while diesel fuel is dispensed through a 22 mm nozzle. As a last line of defense, the tank cap on almost all trucks should be a “brightly colored blue” to prevent diesel from entering the DEF tank.
What should I do if I accidentally dispense diesel fuel into the DEF?
First and foremost, do not be alarmed. Second, do not start the engine under any circumstances. If you don’t start the engine, putting diesel fuel in the DEF and vice versa (DEF in the fuel tank) will not hurt it. The SCR should detect the presence of a solution other than DEF in the tank and alert the driver through the dashboard ECM readout. It’s also crucial to avoid moving the vehicle. The distribution of fuel into the lines and into the SCR might be caused by moving the vehicle. Draining the tank while the vehicle is still in its original location is the best option. If the engine is started for even a short time, diesel fuel will destroy the SCR catalyst, which is highly expensive to replace and is no longer covered by the manufacturer’s guarantee. If DEF gets into the fuel system and spreads throughout the engine, it will eventually destroy the diesel engine. The DEF is incompatible with the gasoline system lines, which corrode with time.
Will DEF freeze in my truck?
DEF, whether in storage tanks or equipment, can freeze and cause problems. When temperatures dip below 12°F, DEF begins to crystallize and ceases to function properly. Because of the precise ratio utilized, the entire mixture can freeze and thaw together like water and ice.
How much DEF should I be using?
Depending on vehicle use, duty cycle, region, load ratings, and other factors, DEF consumption is predicted to be around 2% of gasoline consumption.