What is the weight of a gallon of diesel fuel? A. In the United States, a gallon of diesel fuel weighs about under seven pounds.
How much does number 2 diesel fuel weigh per gallon?
- Unit of measurement. While density is expressed in a variety of ways – g/cm3, kg/L, kg/m3, lbm/ft3, or slugs/ft3 the real number is nearly constant. How you convert one gallon of fuel will cause a variance in determining how much it weighs. Are you measuring in US, British, or Canadian units? Do you want to calculate in US gallon, dry gallon, or imperial gallon? The imperial gallon (impgal = 4.55 liters), the US gallon (usgal = 3.76 liters), and the US dry gallon (usdrygal = 4.40 liters) are the three measurements currently in use (values are rounded off to the second decimal place). Despite the fact that the imperial gallon weighs the most, the US gallon is the international standard.
- Temperature. It’s vital to remember that fuel volume varies depending on humidity, temperature, and weather conditions. Diesel has a density of less than 7 lb/gal at normal temperature. It weighs a little more than 7 pounds at 32°F. A gallon of fuel will weigh around 6.8 pounds at temperatures of 100°F or higher. Because of this variation, fuel density is measured at standard temperatures of 15°C or 59°F. Similarly, as the temperature drops, the viscosity of diesel increases. Its shape changes from a gel at 19 °C (2.2 °F) to 15 °C (5 °F), which not only clogs gasoline lines and filters but also makes it a little heavier.
- API and Specific Gravity The American Petroleum Institute devised this standard to estimate the weight of petroleum in relation to water, which is required for converting diesel volume to, say, US gallons. Furthermore, it is a widely used field test for determining the quality and energy content of diesel fuel: the higher the API, the lower the energy; the higher the S.G., the higher the energy output. The specific gravity (S.G.) of pure biodiesel is 0.88. Sulfur-rich diesel blends, such as ULSD, have greater values than biodiesel, which contributes to its lighter weight. The 2D or Number 2 diesel ranges from 0.876 to 0.802. Diesel fuel’s specific gravity ranges from 0.82 to 0.90, resulting in a weight of 6.85 to 7.5 pounds per gallon.
- Fuel Quality. The ease of ignition, horsepower, and fuel efficiency of diesel fuel are all measured in cetane levels, which are proportional to the fuel’s entire weight. A greater cetane number leads in a higher API gravity and lower density in fuel when obtained through the refining process. Because the minimum cetane rating in Europe is higher than in other countries, diesel in the United Kingdom would have a lower weight range of 6.95-7.04 lbs compared to diesel in the United States. Fuel grades in Canada, like in Europe, are moving toward EN 590 standards, resulting in lighter diesel.
How heavy is a gallon of fuel?
A gallon of conventional fuel (such as gasoline) weighs six pounds, according to the Science and Technology Desk Reference. Water, on the other hand, weighs around 8.4 pounds per gallon.
Does diesel weigh more than gas?
We’ve also witnessed the opposite: one of our clients put gasoline directly into one of his tractor’s diesel fuel tanks by accident. He wanted to know whether there would be any issues.
If you work in the fuel industry long enough, you’ll come across a situation like this at some point. Mixing gasoline with diesel is never a good idea, but it isn’t always a disaster. The most important factor is how much of each you unintentionally added. If that happens to you, here’s what you may expect.
Big Differences between gasoline and diesel fuel
When we talk about diesel fuel, we’re talking about #2 diesel fuel, whether it’s for on-road or off-road use.
When attempting to foresee what problems might occur if one fuel is mistakenly mixed with the other, you must consider the most significant distinctions between the two fuels.
Because diesel fuel is made up of big molecules, it is heavier than gasoline. Because of the difference in density and viscosity, it atomizes differently. It also has a much greater flash point and autoignition temperature. And, given these, the inverse can be applied as well. Gasoline is lighter than diesel and flashes at a lower temperature.
When you bring in fuel that isn’t supposed to be there, these variations in physical qualities cause difficulties in engines and fuel systems.
What is heavier water or diesel fuel?
It’s crucial to realize that low amounts of water dissolved in the gasoline aren’t always a bad thing. “Typically, diesel fuel with low quantities of dissolved water, in the ppm concentration range, will give satisfactory performance,” Harvey explains. “Free water in diesel fuel, on the other hand, can cause excessive injector wear, filter blockage, power loss, and engine fuel system corrosion.”
A simple visual assessment can frequently reveal whether or not there is a problem “There is too much water in the fuel system if the fuel is cloudy or there is evidence of free water,” Harvey adds. “Hazy fuel indicates that enough water is being held in the fuel, most likely by a co-solvent or additive that keeps the water suspended.”
Practice good housekeeping
During transportation, storage, and use, water becomes a concern. Fuel that has just been refined is clean and devoid of excessive moisture. To ensure that American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) criteria are met, refiners and pipeline operators follow strict fuel storage tank maintenance practices that include frequent removal of water bottoms and periodic chemical treatment. Unfortunately, water bottoms removal is sometimes overlooked once it exits these facilities.
Climate, storage tank installation, and gasoline management techniques are all factors that lead to moisture accumulation. Suspended water in the fuel can settle out when the temperature changes. When warm fuel is placed in a cooler tank for storage or transportation, for example, moisture will evaporate as the fuel cools. This necessitates the easy action of draining the water on a regular basis. Because water is denser than fuel, it always sinks to the bottom of the tanks.
Condensation of water in diesel fuel storage tanks is a prevalent issue. The longer the fuel is held, the worse the situation becomes. Microorganisms or bacteria that feed on the hydrocarbons in the fuel can grow if water is allowed to remain in the diesel while it is stored. Slime forms as a result, which can clog filters.
“The most essential way to minimize water in diesel fuel systems is to practice good housekeeping,” Harvey explains. “Periodic draining of water accumulated in fuel tanks, maintaining the seal integrity of fuel storage tanks, and providing time for the fuel to settle following delivery into a storage tank are examples of such activities (this affords water the opportunity to separate out from the diesel prior to distribution). You must also follow a maintenance schedule that involves removing or preventing microbial contamination of the tank’s contents.”
Water from storage and equipment tanks is not drained on a defined basis. “Whenever free water is discovered or visible in the system, the water should be emptied from the fuel/water separator,” Harvey advises. “Unless the gasoline system is not correctly sealed, tank size has no bearing on the maintenance interval. “Climate change can have an effect.”
Above-ground tanks are more susceptible to severe day-to-night temperature changes, resulting in water generation. The temperature of the fuel drops at night, decreasing the water solubility limit and allowing moisture to escape the fuel. This water does not return to the fuel unless it is stirred.
When the tank heats up, the humid air above the fuel cools down and water condenses. The air above ground is generally cooler than the air in underground tanks. Warm, humid air replaces the gasoline as it is dispensed. Water condensation forms as the air cools.
Regardless of the tank type, make sure it is adequately sealed to prevent rainwater contamination.
Humid climates with temperature fluctuations require attention
“Areas with high humidity and low temperatures are more likely to have water accumulation from condensation,” Harvey explains. “While diesel fuel may contain some water in solution, when the ambient temperature drops, water has a greater chance of separating from the diesel and accumulating in the tank’s bottom.”
Microbial development can be hampered in warm, humid settings.
“Warmer temperatures are more prone to microbial contamination, which leads to fuel phase water contamination,” Harvey explains.
The operation of the device might sometimes produce temperature changes. Warm air is sucked into the fuel tank while the apparatus is running during the day. Water condenses as the air above the fuel cools. The tank is a strong candidate for moisture collection if it is left partially full overnight. The humid, warm air in the tanks is removed by topping out the tanks at the end of the day, which helps to prevent condensation.
What are your thoughts on dessicant filters? “Using desiccant filters could provide additional protection,” Harvey explains. “Such filters may be unnecessary in low-humidity situations. However, in high-humidity environments, these filters would quickly become saturated, resulting in higher running costs. If these filters become saturated and are not replaced soon, they are rendered useless. When done correctly, periodic inspections for water in the fuel tanks can obviate the requirement for desiccant filters.”
To combat the consequences of moisture contamination, chemical treatments are available. “Glycol ethers, which are routinely utilized for diesel fuels, are often used to lower the freeze point of water that may be present in a diesel system, preventing ice crystals from clogging filters,” adds Harvey. “They’re used to ‘dry out’ a fuel system as well. However, by drawing water into the diesel fuel as dissolved water, these compounds enhance water contamination.”
Glycol ethers have disadvantages in particular situations. “According to Harvey, the glycol ether “holds the water in the fuel and hence provides more water to the fuel filter, injectors, and combustion chamber.” “When used appropriately, however, these chemicals can be an effective part of good housekeeping.”
You must fully comprehend the role of additives. “Glycol ethers, when used as indicated, can help to reduce the impacts of water in a diesel fuel system, but according to Harvey, “under the strictest definition of contamination, these compounds actually add to fuel phase water contamination.” “Small amounts of alcohol are used in several common diesel fuel additives to lower the freezing point of any water in the system, preventing ice crystal formation and consequent fuel filter blockage.”
Monitor biodiesel blends
Blends of biodiesel are becoming more frequent than ever before. However, depending on the blend, you may want to keep an eye on the fuel for moisture contamination.
“Blends can be more susceptible to water contamination depending on the source of the biodiesel,” explains Harvey. “As established by ASTM D-975, the standard specification for diesel fuel oils, biodiesel mixes up to 5% volume percent are considered regular diesel fuel. To keep the fuel system clear of water, anything exceeding 5% volume percent may necessitate further inspection and maintenance.”
There is no replacement for basic housekeeping habits, whether you use normal No. 2 diesel or biodiesel blends. Water pollution is easily detectable, and if corrective actions are followed promptly, there is no cause for equipment damage or downtime to occur.
How many gallons does a diesel pickup truck hold?
When the radius of operation is taken into account, a semi truck tank typically holds 120 to 150 gallons of fuel, implying that two tanks can hold up to 300 gallons of fuel.
Is a gallon of gas the same as a gallon of milk?
One of the issues in shifting away from fossil fuels, I often remind people, is that the quantity of energy they hold is actually astounding. A gallon of fuel has enough power to propel a modern automobile for more than 30 kilometers. Consider putting your car in neutral and pushing it for 30 miles; the quantity of energy required is nearly equal to the amount supplied by that gallon of gasoline. A gallon of gas, on the other hand, weighs only six pounds and costs, on average, $2 to $3 in the United States, less than a gallon of milk. This is very miraculous.
But why does a gallon of petroleum, a nonrenewable resource that has taken millions of years to develop, requires considerable processing, and is frequently shipped halfway around the world, cost less than a gallon of milk, which is typically produced locally by renewable cows fed renewable grass? The price disparity isn’t just due to the worldwide oil price fall that started in late 2014. For the majority of the last decade, the average price of a gallon of gasoline has been less than the price of a gallon of milk, according to the Consumer Price Index of the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics.
In March 2016, the average price of a gallon of gasoline was $2.02, less than a dollar less than the average price of a gallon of milk, which was $3.19. Organic milk may be available for as little as $7 per gallon in some regions of the country. Let’s take a look at how milk and gasoline are manufactured, stored, and finally delivered to consumers to see what’s behind the price difference.
Crude oil is a mixture of various hydrocarbons that has formed naturally over millions of years and is retrieved from the ground by drilling rigs. The majority of the crude oil produced in the United States is produced in Alaska, North Dakota, Texas, and the Gulf of Mexico. What isn’t made in the US is imported, primarily from Canada and the Middle East.
Crude oil may be held in enormous tank farms for months after it is produced before being piped to a refinery, where it is superheated into a vapor and then distilled from a gaseous mixture of hydrocarbons into constituent fuels like gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel. These liquid fuels are piped from the refinery to terminals, where they are stored in tanks until they are loaded into gasoline tankers and supplied to petrol stations or wherever they are needed. The overall time it takes from oil well extraction to gas pump use is determined by the availability of oil output, refinery capacity, and consumer demand. Crude oil typically takes weeks to months to travel from the wellhead to your gas tank.
Milk begins as a raw liquid that must be processed into a consumer-grade product, similar to gasoline. More than 60,000 dairy farms in the United States generate roughly 57.5 million gallons of raw milk each day, or about 21 billion gallons per year.
Milk is kept at cool temperatures from the moment it exits the cow since it spoils quickly. Before being picked up by a milk truck, raw milk is gathered in storage tanks or silos on the farm and kept below 39 degrees Fahrenheit for no more than 48 hours. Raw milk is then sent to a processing facility, where it is pasteurized, homogenized, sorted into different fat levels, and finally packaged into jugs and cartons for delivery to grocery shops.
All of this takes place in a controlled environment with continual monitoring to guarantee that the milk meets consumer safety standards. The entire process takes about two days, from extraction through pasteurization and packaging to delivery to the grocery store. Because delays in processing and distribution reduce the shelf life of the product, the time from cow to carton is minimal.
This brings us to one of the key reasons milk costs more than gasoline: it is perishable and must be processed and used promptly.
Because milk must be chilled, it cannot be transported through pipeline, which is by far the most efficient method of transporting liquid products over large distances. Milk must be transported in well-insulated tankers or refrigerated trucks instead. Pipelines, on the other hand, are widely used to transport oil across the country. Furthermore, milk cannot be stored for lengthy periods of time, which helps control the market’s supply and demand balance, whereas oil can be stored in large tank farms for months at a time. Cushing, Okla., for example, has a tank farm that can hold up to 80 million barrels of crude oil, enough to produce more than 1.5 billion gallons of gasoline.
The distribution of milk in individually packaged cartons and jugs is another price-relevant difference between milk and gasoline. Because the average American family consumes only a gallon or two of milk per week, the large-scale pumps and tanks used for gasoline are unnecessary. Instead, buying milk in gallon or half-gallon increments is more convenient, and the packaging for each jug and carton adds to the overall cost per gallon. Additionally, because total milk consumption is lower than gasoline use, manufacturers benefit less from economies of scale and must charge more per gallon to pay fixed and overhead costs.
The price of bottled water versus tap water is an illustration of how much transportation and packaging changes may effect cost. According to the International Bottled Water Association, the average price per gallon of bottled water in 2014 was $1.20, whereas the price of tap water was around $2 per thousand gallons or 0.2 cents per gallon, according to the US Environmental Protection Agency. While some of the higher expenses of bottled water are due to filtration and marketing, the majority of the difference stems from the fact that bottled water is individually packaged and carried by truck or train rather than pipeline. Of course, piping milk like water is impossible because we eat so little and milk must be refrigerated, but if we could have a tap for milk in our home fed by municipal pipelines, it would definitely be a lot cheaper than pre-packaged milk.
To be sure, some of the price discrepancies between milk and gasoline are due to factors other than how they are produced and supplied. Milk and oil prices, for example, are influenced by a plethora of rules and subsidies. The basic disparities between milk and gasoline, however, such as shelf life and production, distribution, and consumption scales, are what cause a gallon of milk to cost more than a gallon of fuel.
What is the weight of jet fuel?
JP-5 is a complex hydrocarbon mixture containing alkanes, naphthenes, and aromatic hydrocarbons, weighing 6.8 pounds per US gallon (0.81 kg/l) and having a high flash point (min. 60 °C or 140 °F).