Ford used a diesel engine sourced from Navistar International from 1994 to 2003 that used a unique technique to transfer the gasoline into the combustion chamber: instead of utilizing a typical injection pump, they used oil. The Hydraulic Electronic Unit Injector, or HEUI, is a system in which engine oil is pressured to around 3,000 psi and then utilized to push down on a plunger, which pumps fuel into the engine. There is a 7:1 multiplication effect based on the surface areas of the oil and fuel sides of the plunger, which implies 3,000psi of oil will result in 21,000psi of gasoline entering the engine. The 7.3 Powerstroke is a two-valve monster with a displacement of 444 cubic inches with factory power ratings of 275 horsepower and 525 pound-feet of torque. While it won’t send you down the racetrack any time soon, the 7.3 can haul like a champ, gets excellent fuel consumption for its size, and is one of Ford’s more reliable diesel engines. The best aspect about the HEUI Fords when it comes to designing a high-performance truck is that they don’t come with a DPF, so you can go crazy with the improvements. However, the question is: where do I begin?
Is a 7.3 diesel a good engine?
“The critical factors for any diesel engine surviving forever are robust, iron parts, conservative power, and low engine speedand if a 7.3L has been carefully maintained its whole life, 400,000 to 500,000 miles is nearly certain.”
How much horsepower does a 7.3 non turbo have?
The 7.3 IDI is a V8 diesel engine with an indirect fuel injection system, a mechanical injection pump, and standard glow plugs from International/Navistar. The turbo and non-turbo 7.3 IDI diesel engines have the following specifications.
At 3,000 RPM, the non-turbo 7.3 IDI produced 185 horsepower and 338 pound-feet of torque at 1,400 RPM. The installation of a turbo improved performance slightly; at the same RPMs, the turbo 7.3 IDI generated 190 horsepower and 388 lb-ft of torque.
How can I get more horsepower out of my 7.3 Powerstroke?
Another basic bolt-on addition for the PowerStroke 7.3 is the exhaust. Getting more air into the engine as efficiently as possible is one of the most important strategies to enhance power. However, that air must also efficiently depart the engine. That’s where exhaust upgrades for the 7.3L Power Stroke come in handy. Back-pressure is reduced by using an exhaust system, which increases power and reduces turbo spool time.
On the 7.3L turbodiesel, a catless turbo-back exhaust will provide the best performance increases. However, removing the catalytic converter may raise pollution concerns. The 7.3 Power Stroke will benefit from high-flow catted exhausts as well. However, if power and performance are the end goals, going catless is the way to go.
Expect a 5 to 15-horsepower increase. Along with the faster turbo spool, you’ll notice a significant drop in EGTs. One of the best bolt-on mods for the 7.3L engine is an exhaust.
Best Power Stroke 7.3 Exhausts
This is only a short list of Ford 7.3 exhausts that we believe offer a good combination of price, quality, and performance, similar to intake mods. There are plenty excellent solutions available. If you want the best, go with a stainless steel exhaust. Aluminized is also a fantastic alternative, however some people may experience issues after 5 years or so. It’s also a good idea to stick with a 4 exhaust. Otherwise, simply experiment with different sounds and pricing to find the right balance for your needs.
How much HP does a 2000 7.3 have?
Despite the fact that one of the 7.3L Powerstroke’s greatest qualities is its simplicity, this engine was highly advanced when it was first launched. Direct fuel injection through Hydraulic electric unit injectors accounts for a substantial component of the 7.3L Powerstroke engine’s excellent performance ratings (HEUI injectors). A high-pressure oil pump and a low-pressure fuel lift pump were used in conjunction with the new injectors. A fixed geometry turbocharger was also used in this engine, which was substantially more capable than the unit used in 7.3 IDI engines. Due to a higher supply of cold, dense air, late model 7.3s even gained an air-to-air intercooler for better performance.
The 7.3L Diesel engine of the 1994 Ford Superduty develops 210 horsepower and 425 lb-ft of torque. That’s a 40-horsepower and 87-lb-ft torque boost over the IDI. Every year, modifications to the 7.3l Powerstroke engine were made to make these trucks more powerful, especially in later models. When mated with the 6-speed manual transmission, late model 7.3s from 2000 to 2003 produced 275 horsepower and 525 lb-ft of torque.
Powerstroke Direct Fuel Injection
The 7.3L Powerstroke engine differs from its predecessor, the 7.3L IDI, in that it uses direct fuel injection. Engines that use indirect injection are referred to as IDI engines. Fuel is fed into a pre-combustion or swirl chamber in such engines, where it mixes with air before entering the main combustion chamber. The Direct Injection technology on the 7.3 Powerstroke injects gasoline directly into the combustion chamber, delivering in increased power and better emissions.
High Pressure Oil Pump (HPOP)
The direct fuel injection system on the 7.3L Powerstroke engine is a far cry from the standard system used on other Diesel engines from the same era. The 7.3 employs a High Pressure Oil Pump, or HPOP, as the heart of the system instead of a fuel injection pump to pressurize the fuel for the injectors. This high-pressure oil pump has a fixed-displacement design and is gear-driven.
A swash plate style pump is used in all 7.3l Diesel engines. The HPOP’s oil output is determined by this swash plate. A 15-degree swash plate was used on early 7.3l Powerstroke engines from 1994 to 1999. The 7.3L Powerstroke has a 17-degree swash plate in 1999.5 and later variants. Late models benefit from this since they have more oil volume, which allows these engines to accommodate higher performance modifications more easily.
How much HP can a stock 7.3 transmission handle?
After revealing each Power Stroke diesel’s breaking point in our Threshold for Pain series, we figured we should also tell you about each brand’s gearbox capabilities. After all, most transmissions fail long before the engine positioned in front of it can reach its full capacity. In the case of Ford, its automatic gearbox options have only improved with time. For example, an E4OD put to 300 rwhp and 600 lb-ft of torque on a regular basis back in the day could easily lunch itself. Fast forward to now, and the modern 6R140 TorqShift has no trouble delivering 600 rwhp and 1,200 lb-ft across thousands of miles.
However, before we go any farther, we must acknowledge that these power thresholds aren’t set in stone. For example, a weekend warrior’s 500-rwhp transmission might last ten years, whereas Joe “heavy foot” Blow’s bone-stock, but heavily-abused truck could go through three slushboxes every year. How long your transmission can withstand increased power and/or abuse is entirely up to the operator.
After you’ve digested what Ford’s E4OD, 4R100, 5R110, and 6R140 automatic transmissions can do, stay tuned for our next article on the Allison, the transmission that gave GM’s HD truck line medium-duty toughness.
It’s true that the E4OD is the worst automatic transmission ever connected to a Power Stroke, but keep in mind that it’s based on the C6a design that was 30 years old (and initially meant just for gas engines) when the 7.3L Power Stroke arrived in the middle of 1994. Ford prepared the heaviest duty automatic in its arsenal for the 7.3L Power Stroke by adding steel planetaries (in most, but not all units) and a new torque converter with a better torque holding capacity. The OEM E4OD should last a long time assuming the 7.3L Power Stroke isn’t tweaked. With significant abuse, it can still be killed at the stock 210 horsepower and 425 lb-ft level.
From a performance standpoint, all transmissions will need to be rebuilt or reinforced at some time, and the E4OD and 4R100 transmissions are arguably the cheapest to build up. Builds for towing-anything transmissions start at $3,000, with full-on competition-ready ones costing anywhere from $6,000 to $7,500. Under the right foot of a reasonable driver, most E4ODs in good general health may be modified with a quality triple disc converter and an updated valve body and produce 350 to 400 rwhp. However, there are still a number of Achilles Heel-type flaws in an E4OD’s situation that can pop up at any time (more on that below).
While the E4OD is best thought of as an oversized C6, the 4R100 may be thought of as a modernized version of what is essentially a 1960s transmission. A PTO option, two more speed sensors, and all-steel planetaries were added to the 4R100 (which coincided with the introduction of the Ford Super Duty), as well as a stronger torque converter with a different locking technique. It, too, has many of the same internal flaws as the E4OD (failed coast clutch drum and Overdrive drum snap rings, center section bolts that are known to back out, and a reverse hub that is known to blow out).
We wouldn’t put a set of bigger injectors in your 7.3L Super Duty and expect everything to be well with the stock 4R100 if you’re getting away with hot-rodding around with a 140 hp chip placed on your 7.3L Super Duty (particularly a late ’99 and newer version). It can manage 350 to 400 rwhp a little better than the E4OD, but it won’t be able to do so indefinitely. It’s either construct it or don’t build it at this point! When it comes to failing due to increasing horsepower and torque, the converter, if not the direct or overdrive clutches, is frequently the first to fail (which, aside from the converter are subjected to maximum torque production with the engine under full load). The 4R100, like the E4OD, is still relatively common and can be produced for a reasonable price.
R110 TorqShift (’03-’07)
The 5R110 TorqShift behind the 6.0L Power Stroke isn’t based on a previous design, unlike the four-speed automatics Ford provided from 94.5 through 2003. The 5R110 features adaptive control, which monitors and adjusts shift points in real time to ensure consistent shifting and to account for wear. Technically a six-speed, but advertised as a five (the extra gear is only used for cold weather warmup), the 5R110 features adaptive control, which monitors and adjusts shift points in real time to ensure consistent shifting and to account for wear. It can withstand a lot of abuse in its current state. How about 500 rwhp for long periods of time and 550 to 600 rwhp for racing? Its torque converter is light years ahead of what was available in the E4OD and 4R100 in terms of holding capability, and even when the early 5R110s do fail, it’s almost never due to the converter. When the TorqShift on a 6.0L fails, it’s likely because the direct or overdrive clutches have failed.
R110 TorqShift (’08-’10)
The 5R110 found behind the compound turbocharged 6.4L Power Stroke from 2008 to 2010 was even more powerful. It has a different stall, an 8-bolt torque converter (instead of the 6-bolt unit used from 2003 to 2007), larger pinion count planetaries, and a deeper pan. Unlike the 6.0L TorqShift, this second generation TorqShift isn’t pushing its limits at 550 rwhp (and 1,100 lb-ft of torque). Instead, with careful driving, it can stay there for years.
The original ’08-’10 TorqShift can handle 700 rwhp and more than 1,300 lb-ft of torque in competition conditions or when the owner simply drives his or her truck hard on occasion. Several tune-only 6.4L-powered Super Dutys have been seen rolling around all week at 550 to 580 rwhp, then clearing 700 rwhp with a sniff of nitrous at the track and living to tell the tale for a few years. Except for the newest TorqShift on the market, no other transmission in the diesel truck class has proven capable of doing so (keep reading).
600-rwhp Boiling Point (but will survive an occasional blast of 700 to 800-rwhp)
R140 TorqShift (’11-Present)
The six-speed 6R140 TorqShift, which debuted in 2011 behind the 6.7L Power Stroke, has shown to be even more durable than the second generation 5R110. By the way, the “140” in 6R140 is claimed to stand for “1,400 lb-ft,” the torque capacity of the unit at the factory. Even though Ford Super Duty trucks now have 925 lb-ft of torque, the heavy-duty slushbox below them has plenty of space for error.
It’s no secret that the Allison 1000 is Ford’s main opponent in the diesel-specific transmission category. As a result, the 6R140 TorqShift compares favorably to the well-known commercial-duty A1000 in many areas. It has a 1.18-inch input shaft (vs. 1.26 inches on the Allison). Its output shaft is 1.61 inches long (vs. 1.75 inches on the Allison). Its overall dry weight is same as the A1000 (325 pounds vs. 330 pounds for the Allison). A one-piece bell housing, on the other hand, will not allow for any flex. It’s no surprise that these transmissions are found in countless late-model Super Duty trucks with 650 to 700 horsepower at the wheels.
R140: A Severe Duty Transmission
The 6R140 is also available in Ford’s medium-duty sector. In fact, for the F-650 and F-750 trucks, it’s the only transmission option. How’s that for faith in its six-speed automatic transmission?
How long does a 7.3 turbo last?
Some of you may scoff at this argument, but anyone who has driven a bone-stock 7.3L-equipped ‘94.5-’03 Ford knows how difficult it is to keep up with modern traffic. In Power Stroke guise, the 7.3L was rated at 210hp and 425 lb-ft of torque when it debuted in mid-’94 (the version of the 7.3L that Navistar built for International trucks was coined the T444E and came with different yet similarly-mild power ratings). While that kind of power was on par with or better than what Dodge and GM were producing at the time, you were still looking at 14-second 0-60 times. The basic requirements for any diesel engine to endure forever are robust, iron parts, conservative power, and low engine speedand if a 7.3L has been adequately maintained throughout its life, 400,000 to 500,000 miles is nearly certain.
What year 7.3 is the best?
The short answer is that the 1999 7.3 Liter Power Stroke V-8 was the engine’s final year of operation under outdated assumptions about environmental controls, customer expectations, and general maintenance ease. While the Power Stroke is generally regarded as a superior engine, it had almost a decade of service under its belt by 1999, and any bugs had been ironed out.
The end product was a tough workhorse of an engine that handled nearly every task thrown at it. Plus, it was diesel, which brought with it all of its benefits. The 7.3, on the other hand, had its own set of advantages.
The Power Stroke engine was built with high-quality parts and a straightforward design to generate an engine that won no street races but lasted 400,000 to 500,000 kilometers. To get that kind of mileage, the engine had to be stock and well maintained, but even abused, the 7.3 Power Stroke engine was good for at least 300,000 miles.
Few Emissions Controls
Emissions regulations are good for the environment, but they shorten the life of truck engines. To control NOX emissions, the 7.3 Power Stroke depended on its internal engine computer system. It was also equipped with a catalytic converter. However, that was the end of the emissions control features.
Future Power Stroke engines, on the other hand, had a gas recirculation system that had a number of concerns, including valve troubles, cracked coolers, tainted oil, and early coolant fouling. Diesel particulate filters were added to future versions. Those two adjustments alone almost guaranteed that a vehicle with a 7.3 liter engine would not get very high mpg.
Basic but Reliable
The 7.3 Liter V-8 isn’t going to win any technical or exotic component honors. The 1999 remake was no exception. The 7.3 Power Stroke was unsophisticated in comparison to today’s engines.
The block was gray iron, while the crankshaft was forged steel. Until 2000, the rods were made of forged steel. The pistons were made of aluminum that had been cast. It possessed a standard V-8 engine with one camshaft, two valves, and two pushrod cylinders, as well as simple hydraulic lifters that didn’t need to be calibrated or broken.
The 7.3 was underpowered in comparison to today’s engines, but that was a gift in terms of longevity. It lacked the bells and whistles found in today’s engines. It has a basic and straightforward computing system. All of this added up to a simple engine that just did its job for years.
It Ran Cool
The 7.3’s stress potential was minimized by lowering the horsepower and torque ratings, which also helped to keep exhaust gas cooler. The 7.3 received an air-to-air intercooler in 1999, which further cooled things down.
Cooler Oil Via an External Oil Cooler
In a 7.3, the engine oil had to work extremely hard. The PSI of engine oil was boosted to 3,000 thanks to a high-pressure circuit. Engine oil heated up quickly due to the extreme pressure. The 7.3 had an external air chiller to help with this. The oil was not only cooled by outside air, but the cooler also had large corridors that never became clogged.
An injector sequence in a 7.3 Liter V-8 provided an initial setup blast of fuel before the full load was released. This resulted in a hotter, more thorough burn and increased engine output. It was, however, designed in such a way that the plunger only had to work once each combustion event, despite the fact that there were two injections.
The design resulted in a highly reliable fuel injection system with long-lasting injectors, lowering maintenance costs and ensuring consistent performance.
Is 6.0 or 7.3 engine better?
Was the 7.3L engine genuinely superior? Sure. That assertion, however, is very dependent on what you’re basing your judgment on. The 7.3L is the clear winner in terms of dependability, durability, and simplicity. The 6.0L has it beat when it comes to horsepower, drivability, and passing modern-day emissions rules.
In the end, both engines have advantages and disadvantages. It’s up to you to figure out which one checks the most boxes in the categories that matter to you.
When did the 7.3 Get a turbo?
Although the first Powerstroke diesel engine didn’t appear until late 1994, the Powerstroke tale began in 1982 when Ford partnered with ITEC to produce diesel engines (International Truck and Engine Corporation). It was a 6.9-liter indirect injection (IDI) engine for the first one. Although it only had 170 horsepower and 315 pound-feet of torque, these were outstanding figures for the 1980s.
The 6.9-liter IDI engine was produced until 1987, when it was replaced by the 7.3-liter IDI engine. Between 1987 and 1993, this engine was produced with the same stroke as the preceding 6.9-liter but a larger bore. The cylinder heads were totally reworked, and the engine block was strengthened as well. There was no turbocharger on this engine. This 7.3L IDI engine was the forerunner of the 7.3-liter Powerstroke engine that we are all familiar with today.
The turbocharged 7.3L made its debut in 1993. Internal sections of the engine were also updated to resist the turbo boost pressure. This engine didn’t gain much of a power or torque boost despite the turbo. However, it didn’t matter in the end because Ford was ready to release the engine that would revolutionize the industry.
Introducing the First Powerstroke: The Legendary 7.3-liter
The first Powerstroke turbo-diesel was a direct-injection engine that was produced between 1994 and 2003. A wastegate turbocharger, HUEI fuel injectors, and an air-to-air intercooler were among the 7.3 Powerstroke items available at the time. This engine had the same displacement as the previous one, but it included an electronically controlled direct-injection system that allowed it to produce up to 21,000 psi.
The first model 7.3-liter Powerstroke was built to last, with a 4.11-inch bore, 4.18-inch stroke, cast-iron block and cylinder heads, and forged steel connecting rods. It routinely went to 300,000 miles and beyond. The air-to-air intercooler and HEUI fuel injectors were introduced in the second version of the 7.3-liter Powerstroke in 1999.
HEUI fuel injectors were a key component of the second-generation Powerstroke’s new parts. A low-pressure pump and a high-pressure pump were required for the new system. The low-pressure pump pumps oil into the high-pressure reservoir, which the high-pressure pump subsequently forces through oil lines into the high-pressure oil rails. The injection pressure varies between 500 and 3,000 psi, resulting in an increase in fuel pressure at the injectors due to the oil pumps.
This second series of 7.3-liter Powerstroke engines was produced until 2003 and is still regarded as one of the best diesel engines ever by many diesel enthusiasts. It frequently exceeded a quarter-million miles.
Meeting Emissions Requirements with The 6.0-liter Powerstroke
In 2003, ITEC, now Navistar, teamed up with Ford to produce the 6.0-liter Powerstroke engine. The decision to drop the venerable 7.3-liter was influenced by new government pollution standards. To compete with the GM Duramax and Cummins Turbo Diesel, the Powerstroke needed to provide higher power while emitting fewer pollutants.
The new 6.0L Powerstroke used a new variable geometry turbo and various new emissions control components to enhance power to 325 horsepower and 570 pound-feet of torque.
Unfortunately, some 6.0 Powerstroke equipment, such as the oil cooler, EGR cooler, high-pressure oil pump, and head gasket, were prone to failure. Despite the fact that several 6.0-liter Powerstroke engines are still in use today, the engine’s reputation for reliability caused Ford to discontinue it in 2007.
The Clean and Quiet 6.4-liter Powerstroke
In 2007, Navistar teamed up with Ford once more to produce the 6.4-liter Powerstroke. The HEUI technology was used in previous Powerstroke diesel parts, however this engine added a common rail system with piezoelectric injectors. The 6.4 received its boost from two consecutive turbochargers. This engine had a power output of 350 horsepower and a torque output of 650 pound-feet.
The 6.4 Powerstroke had other issues, while fulfilling the strict diesel emissions rules of the period. One of the most common criticisms was the engine’s low fuel efficiency for a diesel engine. It was, however, unquestionably quieter and more powerful than the previous engine.
It, like the 6.0, was only produced for a few years before the Navistar-Ford relationship ended in 2010.
The Powerful and Efficient 6.7-liter Powerstroke
Ford decided to build its own Powerstroke engine without the help of Navistar in 2011. This engine featured a new design that included a water-to-air intercooler and a DualBoost variable geometry turbo. The 6.7-liter Powerstroke benefited from cutting-edge diesel technology such as its Instant Start feature and a lightweight compacted graphite iron engine block, which made it 160 pounds lighter than the 6.4-liter Powerstroke. The 6.7 utilises a common-rail injection system, just as the previous engine.
Initially, this engine had 390 horsepower and 735 pound-feet of torque. Ford managed to push it to 400 horsepower with a new turbo just a year later. By 2015, Ford has increased the output of the new 6.7-liter engine to 440 horsepower and 860 pound-feet of torque. The max torque of the engine increased to 925 pound-feet in 2017, while the horsepower stayed same.
In comparison to the two engines that came before it, the 6.7-liter Powerstroke has shown to be quite reliable. The iconic 7.3-liter, on the other hand, is still revered by many diesel aficionados. If you don’t want to upgrade to Ford’s newest Powerstroke, there are plenty of 7.3 Powerstroke performance parts available to help you get the most out of this older engine.
ProSource has all the performance diesel parts you need for any Powerstroke engine, so you can get the most out of your truck.