The fundamental difference between Diesel #1 and Diesel #2 is the cetane rating, which, like the octane of gasoline, indicates igniting ease. It’s all about fuel efficiency, volatility, and seasonality, really.
Less wear on your engines’ batteries implies a faster and more efficient start. The increased cetane grade also helps diesel engines run more smoothly by lowering maintenance requirements.
The additional lubricants in Premium Diesel assist keep fuel system parts moving easily. The fuel pump’s and other fuel system components’ lives are extended as a result of the reduced friction.
Fuel systems can become clogged with sediments and other particles over time. While the engine is operating, detergents are injected to Diesel #1 to clean injectors and other fuel system components. Not only does a clean fuel system last longer, but it also enhances fuel efficiency and horsepower production.
Diesel #1 contains lubricants and detergents, as well as other fuel additives that improve engine performance and save downtime. Even in a well-sealed fuel system, air moisture can find its way in and cause major engine problems. Demulsifiers in premium Diesel work to separate emulsified water from the fuel so that it can be filtered out; even in a well-sealed fuel system, air moisture can find its way in and cause major engine problems. Corrosion inhibitors keep rust and corrosion at bay, while stabilizers keep blockages and buildup at bay.
Diesel #1 is sometimes known as winter diesel since it operates better in colder conditions than Diesel #2. It has a lower viscosity and does not gel when exposed to cold temperatures. Most stations sell a premium Diesel blend that is tailored to the local climate.
While premium diesel has a number of advantages, such as fewer maintenance and equipment downtime, regular diesel is less expensive at the pump, which is an essential consideration. However, total cost of ownership should take into account not only the cost savings from the fuel, but also the impact on ongoing maintenance costs. The age and size of your fleet may play a role in deciding between Diesel #1 and Diesel #2.
When deciding between Diesel #1 and Diesel #2 for your fleet, keep in mind that premium Diesel quality differs from station to station. If you choose Diesel #1, make sure your drivers get their fuel at reliable high-volume stations.
Do you want to learn more about the effects of diesel choices on fuel systems? To talk with an equipment professional, contact your nearest Papé Kenworth office now.
What diesel do you run in the winter?
The splutter of a diesel engine that won’t start is the worst sound on a cold winter morning. No matter how much freight you have to deliver, if the weather gets the best of your rig, nothing will get done.
Diesel engines are notorious for being unreliable in the cold. Every year, fleet owners are reminded of this in an uncomfortable manner. Your operation, however, does not have to rely on the whims of Old Man Winter. Here’s all you need to know about putting cold-weather diesel issues to rest.
Why cold weather causes diesel problems
Before entering an engine, diesel fuel travels through a filter to remove contaminants. This filter is a critical component of your system, but it’s also a prime target for the effects of cold weather.
Paraffin wax is a naturally occurring component in No. 2 diesel fuel. This wax is harmless to your equipment because it remains liquid under normal settings. When paraffin wax solidifies in freezing temperatures, it binds together into bigger crystals that can’t pass through the filter. This is the problem that diesel users are referring to when they talk about gelling.
The cloud point, named after the white haze or “cloud” that emerges as paraffin wax crystalizes, is the temperature at which gelling begins. The cloud point of No. 2 diesel fuel is 14 degrees Fahrenheit.
If the temperature continues to decrease, wax crystals will begin to accumulate rapidly on the fuel filter, starving the engine of fuel. The cold filter plugging point (CFPP) is the lowest temperature at which a certain diesel fuel may still pass through a 45-micron filter. The CFPP is typically within a few degrees of the cloud point for most No. 2 diesel fuels.
While CFPP is a standard measurement for the industry, it can be inaccurate for some current rigs. Today’s high-performance diesel engines require finer filters than those used to measure CFPP, which means a new diesel engine could theoretically clog at a temperature higher than the CFPP of its fuel. While the CFPP can be useful in some situations, keep in mind its limits.
It’s worth noting that both cloud point and CFPP are inherent qualities of a fuel that can’t be changed. When the temperature drops low enough, paraffin wax will always crystalize. So, how do you avoid filter blockage and gelling throughout the winter? Even though you can’t modify cloud point or CFPP, you can change a third element.
How to prevent diesel from gelling
One critical parameter, operability, holds the key to preventing cold-weather gelling and filter plugging. Operatability is the variable over which diesel equipment owners have control. It is defined as the lowest temperature at which a piece of equipment can run without losing power.
But how can you lower a rig’s minimum operating temperature if you can’t stop paraffin wax from crystallizing? You can’t get rid of the wax crystals in a No. 2 diesel, but you can vary the shape of them. That’s where you’ll find the key to making your rigs more cold-weather capable.
A cold flow improver (CFI) is an unique gasoline additive that dissolves the bonds in paraffin wax. A CFI allows paraffin wax to move through the filter smoothly by breaking up big crystals into into smaller bits. A CFI is usually effective down to roughly 0 degrees Fahrenheit.
Steps to winterize your diesel fuel
The first step in fully safeguarding your diesel against cold-weather gelling and filter blocking is to install a CFI. As the weather gets colder, swap out your No. 2 diesel for a No. 1, which is devoid of paraffin wax and thus provides the optimum operability during the coldest months of the year.
However, you don’t want to make the changeover all at once. It’s critical to make the switch from a No. 2 to a No. 1 diesel gradually. The following are the steps you should take:
- When the temperature drops below 35 degrees Fahrenheit, use a 70 percent No. 2 diesel and 30 percent No. 1 diesel blend with a CFI. Try Cenex Roadmaster XL Seasonally Enhanced or Ruby Fieldmaster Seasonally Enhanced premium diesel fuels, which come with a CFI as well as a full additive package.
- As winter approaches, combine 30% No. 2 with 70% No. 1, continuing to mix in a CFI. Try Cenex Wintermaster winterized premium diesel fuel for improved low-temperature performance. Wintermaster features a full additive package designed to keep engines protected, as well as the best diesel fuel blend for the cold.
- Use straight No. 1 diesel whenever the temperature dips below minus 30 degrees Fahrenheit. Try No. 1 Diesel Fuel With Cenex Premium Diesel Fuel Additive to keep additive levels in check.
Watch for diesel fuel icing
On a related point, keep a watch out for symptoms of gasoline frost on your rigs. Because it causes similar engine stalling symptoms, icing is sometimes mistaken for gelling. The difference with icing is that instead of wax crystals, ice crystals form on the gasoline filter. Icing is a huge reason for concern since it indicates that water has entered your gasoline. If you discover water in your fuel system, contact a qualified mechanic immediately.
Diesel equipment can take a beating in the winter. The good news is that you don’t have to take any chances with your business. Use Cenex Winterized Premium Diesel for fuel that works as hard as you do, and you can leave fuel gelling and filter plugging out in the cold.
How cold is #2 diesel good for?
The temperature of 2 diesel is around 14 degrees Fahrenheit. Switching to a winter blend 15 degrees above cloud point is a decent rule of thumb. When the overnight temperatures drop below 30 degrees F, it’s time to add No. 1 diesel with winter additives.
What is #2 diesel used for?
Because Diesel #2 is less volatile than Diesel #1 and delivers better fuel economy, truckers utilize it to transport big loads over long distances at constant speeds. The viscosity of diesel fuel is also measured. Diesel fuel, like any other oil, thickens and becomes cloudier as it cools.
Which grade of diesel fuel is best suited for cold weather operation?
Between the two diesel fuel grades, #1 is the best option in the winter or cold locations due to its great resistance to gelling in temperatures as low as -60° Fahrenheit. It is, however, quite costly. #2 has an advantage in terms of cost per Btu, but it begins to gel at around 10° Fahrenheit, depending on its overall makeup. Here are your greatest options if you work in a cold climate:
At what temp does #2 diesel gel?
This is the problem that diesel users are referring to when they talk about gelling. The cloud point, named after the white haze or “cloud” that emerges as paraffin wax crystalizes, is the temperature at which gelling begins. The cloud point of No. 2 diesel fuel is 14 degrees Fahrenheit.
What is green diesel?
On-road diesel is either clear or somewhat green in appearance. When diesel fuel is freshly dispensed into a bottle to observe its color, refineries add a green dye, which is visible. This dye fades to yellow or darker colors as the fuel ages. Checking the fuel for a “bright” appearance, with the faint green dye being a giveaway that the diesel is new and in good condition, is part of a visual inspection to assess diesel fuel quality.
What is dyed diesel?
Diesel contains dye in almost all of it. When we talk about dyed diesel, we usually mean a red dye applied to off-road diesel. Off-road diesel is typically used for heating oil, construction fueling, agricultural use, and other off-road equipment not needed to pay fuel taxes on the highway system.
What is farm diesel?
Off-road diesel, often known as farm diesel or diesel for agricultural purposes, is diesel that is not subject to on-road fuel taxes. Diesel fuel used for agricultural purposes is tax-free. Taxes can be avoided if diesel is burned on a farm and can be tracked. In Oregon, farms are able to obtain clear diesel without paying any road fees. It is frequently coloured red to indicate that it is tax-free. Some farms may track their use of clear diesel so they can submit for Federal road taxes for off-road usage in Oregon, where P.U.C. for trucks over 26,000 GVW pay a weight mile tax instead of a per gallon state road tax.
What color is dyed diesel?
Every gallon of fuel sold in the United States contains some color. Diesel for on-road use usually has a slight green hue. This is a dye that is mixed into the fuel by either the refiner or the terminal supplier. Off-road diesels are coloured red to indicate that the fuel is tax-free and intended only for off-road use.
Why is diesel dyed?
Diesel is coloured to indicate whether or not it has paid road tax. In the United States, on-road diesel usually has a faint green hue. Off-road diesel is dyed red to indicate that it has not paid the required road taxes in all states and by the federal government.
What is off-road diesel?
Off-road diesel is diesel fuel that has been dyed red to indicate that it is tax-free and only available for off-road fuel uses such as construction fueling, equipment that is never used on a public road, agricultural use, heating oil, boiler fuel, and other non-taxed diesel fuel uses as defined by state and federal fuel tax laws. Some off-road users in Oregon can use the Oregon state tax exemption to buy on-road fuel if they have the correct papers.
Is dyed or off-road diesel flammable?
The National Fire Code classifies off-road diesel as a Class II combustible liquid. A flammable fuel has a flash point below 100 degrees Fahrenheit. Diesel has a flash point of 126 to 205 degrees Fahrenheit (usually around 160 degrees Fahrenheit), making it a Class II flammable.
Is off-road diesel or dyed diesel high sulfur diesel?
Dyed diesel (also known as off-road diesel) contains a lot of sulfur. Diesel fuel having a sulfur level of more than 500 parts per million is known as high sulfur diesel.
Is off-road diesel or dyed diesel ultra-low sulfur diesel?
Off-road and colored diesel fuels may have ultra-low sulfur, however this is not always the case. In the United States, there has been a persistent campaign to reduce sulfur in all fuels, led by EPA regulation. Off-road construction and agricultural equipment have been required by EPA rules in recent years to have an emissions system that allows ultra-low sulfur to function without serious difficulties. As a result, today’s off-road diesel is ultra-low sulfur. If you have a tank with old dyed red diesel fuel in it, you can infer it has a sulfur concentration that is higher than ultra-low.
What is dyed ULSD fuel?
Dyed ULSD fuel is ultra-low sulfur diesel that has been dyed red to indicate that it is only intended for off-road or untaxed use. Heating oil, construction fuel, agricultural fuel, generator fuel, and other off-road uses are common uses for this type of fuel. The abbreviation “ULSD” stands for ultra-low sulfur diesel.
Is dyed diesel #1 or # 2 diesel?
Diesel that has been dyed can be either #1 or #2 diesel. Both fuels must include a red dye to prove that they are untaxed and cannot be utilized as on-road fuels.
Why does the government require diesel be dyed red?
“For two reasons, the federal government demands dyeing of untaxed diesel fuel and kerosene. To aid in the reduction of tax fraud by recognizing fuel that hasn’t paid excise taxes and to aid in the reduction of air pollution by identifying fuel that isn’t acceptable for use in highway vehicles.”
Is dyed diesel and off-road diesel kerosene?
Kerosene (which crosses as #1 diesel fuel) can be found in dyed diesel and off-road diesel, but it is not always the case. Do not mistake a dyed fuel for kerosene, which is a more uncommon fuel. Kerosene differs from #1 diesel in one way: it has been proven that it may be absorbed and taken up by a wick. All kerosene is classified as #1 diesel. Kerosene isn’t found in all #1 diesel fuels. Diesels that have been colored and off-road fuels are in the same boat. All coloured kerosene and off-road diesel are dyed. Kerosene isn’t the only coloured fuel.
Is dyed diesel and off-road diesel stove oil?
Stove oil is coloured diesel and off-road diesel. Similar to diesel, it’s usually a #1 or #2 stove oil. Stove oils, as opposed to diesel, had a slightly distinct set of specification problems in the past, which is why they were named “stove oils.” It was less precise when petroleum refineries distilled crude oils to make diesel range fuels than it is now with hydrocracking technology. The number of distillate range fuel requirements is significantly more concentrated today, thanks to both oil refinery technologies and EPA emission standards, in order to assure compliance with EPA and state rules. If your heating appliance requires stove oil, it will most likely require #1 stove oil or #1 kerosene. This product is supposed to produce less soot, making it better suited for use in a pot stove. Monitor and Toyostove thermostatically controlled direct vent heaters are the most current stove oil appliances in the United States.
Is off-road diesel bad for my truck?
It depends on the year of your truck, and we’re assuming you’re talking about red diesel fuel. To begin, it is illegal to use dyed diesel, off-road diesel, or heating oil in an on-road vehicle. If you are found in Oregon, you might face a punishment of up to $10,000, and the state is very aggressive in pursuing tax evasion. Beyond the usage of off-road fuel, which is legal. On the west coast, coloured diesel is often ultra low sulfur fuel. This means that if it’s burned in your engine, it won’t cause any problems. It may be high sulfur or low sulfur fuel, depending on the age of the colored fuel or whether it is genuinely a heating oil. If you use that fuel in a post-2007 engine with a particle trap, you’ll have major maintenance problems.
Is dyed diesel or off-road diesel heating oil?
Yes, colored diesel and off-road fuel can be used to heat your home. These days, most dyed diesel and off-road diesel is ultra-low sulfur diesel. According to the EPA and most state rules, heating oil can have a low or high sulfur concentration. So, while heating oil cannot always be colored diesel (when used for off-road machinery or agricultural purposes), dyed/off-road diesel can always be used for heating oil and meet the requirements of heating oil furnaces.
Does off-road diesel freeze?
At low temperatures, off-road diesel gels. Wax crystals form and fall out of the diesel at lower temperatures, clogging filters and gelling the fuel. Water and naturally held-in diesel will also ice up, clogging filters. Diesel gelling is the term for this phenomena.
Does off-road diesel gel in cold weather?
If it gets cold enough, all diesel fuels will gel. Wax crystals and ice accumulating in your fuel will clog filters and cause your equipment to shut down. As a rule of thumb, if you don’t treat your diesel fuel, it should work OK above 20 degrees F. If the temperature drops below 20 degrees Fahrenheit, make sure your vendor treats the fuel for winter use so it can operate at -20 degrees Fahrenheit. If you’re going to be operating in temps below that, check with your vendor to see if they’ve tested the fuel to work in temperatures below -20 degrees F.
Does off-road diesel go bad?
Off-road and dyed diesel might deteriorate with time. All ASTM-compliant diesel fuels should be safe to store for up to a year without extra treatment or testing. If you’re storing diesel for a long time, it’s a good idea to treat it with a biocide and an oxidative stabilizer to guarantee that it stays within specifications and that nothing grows in your fuel tank. Water and dirt entering the fuel through a tank vent is the worst opponent of long-term diesel storage. A tank will breathe when the temperature changes, bringing in air and moisture from the outside. Keeping your gasoline within specification means making sure there’s no water in the tank and that no outside impurities can get in.
How long can I store off-road or dyed diesel in a fuel tank?
Diesel fuel has a one-year shelf life if left untreated. You can anticipate diesel to last two to three years if it is treated with a biocide to prevent biological development in the tank. When diesel is sampled after two to three years, it loses its brightness and begins to exhibit signs of age. After three years, you’ll want to sample and test the fuel to make sure it’s up to code and safe to use.
What is the difference between off-road diesel and on-road diesel?
The significant difference between the two fuels is the amount of gasoline taxes levied. To indicate that it is both ultra-low sulfur diesel and that the on-road fuel taxes associated with using it to power a highway vehicle have been paid, all on-road diesel is transparent or greenish in color. Fuel that has been dyed has not been taxed and cannot be used to power a vehicle on a public road.
Do you pay sales tax on dyed diesel or off-road diesel in Washington state?
Yes. The sales tax is assessed if you consume colored diesel and do not pay the on-road fuel taxes in Washington state. The sales tax is not paid if you use clear fuel with road taxes connected to it. The Washington Department of Revenue has more information on Washington fuel taxes.
What are the taxes on dyed diesel or off-road diesel in Oregon state?
Your gasoline distributor pays a modest tax (less than $.01) on the fuel they purchase at the wholesale terminal. The US EPA Superfund cleanup and the “LUST” (Leaking Underground Storage Tank Cleanup Fund) are two of the taxes. Aside from that, there are no taxes on off-road diesel fuel in Oregon (federal, state, or local municipality).
Is there a way to buy clear diesel without a road tax on it?
In Oregon, you can purchase clear fuel that is exempt from state road charges. The following are the requirements for using clear diesel in Oregon without paying state taxes:
- cars with a legal Oregon “E” plate and registered to a US government agency, an Oregon state agency, or an Oregon county or city
- Vehicles or farm tractors/equipment that are only used on the roadway inadvertently, as specified in ORS 319.520
- Unlicensed vehicles or equipment that are utilized exclusively on privately owned property
What happens if I use dyed diesel in an on-road vehicle?
If you are caught in Oregon, you might be fined $10,000 each day. We’ve seen fuel tax evaders nabbed before, so be advised that Oregon is looking for any amount of dye in an on-road vehicle’s saddle tank. You will have maintenance concerns with your vehicle’s emission system if you use low sulfur or high sulfur fuel and your vehicle has a particulate trap.
Can you use dyed diesel in a diesel pickup truck?
Only if the pickup is solely for off-roading. If you plan to utilize that truck on a public road (even to cross a street) and colored fuel is discovered in it, state regulators can (and do) levy fines of up to $10,000 per occurrence. You can use off-road diesel as the vehicle’s fuel if you have a closed facility or a large farm and are not registering the vehicle for on-road use (thus the pickup must not leave the site). Any regulator observing dyed fuel in your vehicle will assume it’s an on-road pickup if you have license plates and it’s approved for on-road use.
How does the government test if someone used dyed diesel?
Typically, regulators may take a sample from the tank or spin the gasoline filter to look for obvious dyed fuel when checking for illegal usage of dyed fuel. If the fuel is clear (or even slightly pink) and they suspect dyed fuel was used in the car, they can use a special black light to show that dyed fuel was in touch with the vehicle. They’ll beam the light on the gasoline filter, the fuel tanks, and other portions of the engine compartment that may have come into contact with the fuel. They will cite the vehicle operator if they detect even a minor trace of the red-dye used in off-road fuel in specific regions. On the internet, there are kits for filtering dye out of gasoline to eliminate the color. Those kits won’t be able to remove enough dye to keep these lights from detecting it.
Why is off road diesel illegal for pick up trucks to use?
Off-road diesel is painted red to indicate that on-road fuel taxes have not been paid or that the fuel is tax-free. Fuel taxes for on-road fuel usage are levied by the federal government and state governments to help pay for the roads we all use. Fuel taxes are deductible if you use diesel for non-road equipment, machinery, or heating/boiler uses, and the fuel is coloured to make its tax-free status obvious. In a roadside or site level inspection, regulators can also shine a black light on certain parts of a vehicle’s system to see if colored gasoline is being used illegally.
What is the difference between dyed diesel and heating oil?
What’s going on in the Pacific Northwest right now? Typically, nothing. Diesel-colored heating oil is used. To reduce the overall cost of the fuel, most petroleum distributors sell the mainstream colored diesel grade for use as heating oil. Heating oil and dyed diesel have varied ASTM requirements depending on where you acquire it. Because furnaces and boilers can manage dirtier, lower-quality fuels than off-road equipment with a particle trap, heating oil specifications have larger tolerances than diesel criteria. Although heating oil is always a diesel fuel, dyed diesel for off-road machinery may have a distinct specification. In Oregon, for example, any dyed diesel fuel used in off-road equipment must include at least 5% biodiesel or renewable diesel. Heating oil and boilers are excluded from the biofuel mandate. Heating oil, on the other hand, can be free of biodiesel, while off-road diesel for machinery cannot.
Can refrigerated trailers or “reefers use dyed diesel even if they are attached to a truck moving it on the highway?
Refrigerated trailers are, in fact, off-road vehicles. Because its engine is not pushing something along the road, the diesel-fueled refrigeration trailer is considered off-road equipment. Any ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel can be used in these trailers (dyed or clear). If you use on-road clear fuel in a refrigerated trailer and keep track and verification of the on-road fuel used in the off-road piece of equipment, you can get your fuel taxes returned. However, proof is required, so speak with your CPA or accountant.
Can #1 diesel gel?
Diesel fuels No. 1 and No. 2 are designed for use in highway vehicles. While No. 2 diesel is the more popular, No. 1 diesel is preferable for cold weather use. This is due to its lower boiling point and reduced weight compared to No. 2 diesel. This reduces the likelihood of it gelling or waxing in cold conditions, allowing it to flow more freely through a car’s engine. No. 1 diesel, on the other hand, is more expensive than No. 2 diesel. For this reason, many individuals combine the two diesels for use in cold weather.
What is #1 diesel used for?
Distillate fuel oil is a broad term for one of the petroleum fractions produced in traditional distillation processes. Diesel fuels and fuel oils are included. On-highway diesel engines, such as those in trucks and automobiles, as well as off-highway engines, such as those in train locomotives and agricultural machinery, use No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 diesel fuel. Fuel oils with the numbers No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 are largely utilized for space heating and electric power generation.
No. 1 Distillate: A light petroleum distillate that can be used as a diesel fuel or a fuel oil (see No. 1 Diesel Fuel). See No. 1 Fuel Oil for more information.
- No. 1 Diesel Fuel: A light distillate fuel oil that satisfies ASTM Specification D 975 criteria and has distillation temperatures of 550 degrees Fahrenheit at the 90% mark. It’s found in high-performance diesel engines like those seen in city buses and other comparable vehicles. See No. 1Distillate for more information.
- No. 1 Fuel Oil: A light distillate fuel oil that satisfies ASTM Specification D 396 and has distillation temperatures of 400 degrees Fahrenheit at the 10% recovery point and 550 degrees Fahrenheit at the 90% recovery point. It’s mostly used as a fuel source for portable outdoor stoves and warmers. See No. 1Distillate for more information.
No. 2 Distillate: A petroleum distillate that can be used as a diesel fuel or a fuel oil (see No. 2 Diesel Fuel definition). No. 2 Fuel oil is a good example.
- No. 2 Diesel Fuel: A fuel that fulfills the ASTM Specification D 975 criteria and has a distillation temperature of 640 degrees Fahrenheit at the 90% recovery point. It’s found in high-speed diesel engines like those found in locomotives, trucks, and cars. See No. 2Distillate for more information.
- No. 2 fuel oil (heating oil): A distillate fuel oil that meets ASTM Specification D 396 and has distillation temperatures of 400 degrees Fahrenheit at the 10% recovery point and 640 degrees Fahrenheit at the 90% recovery point. It’s utilized in atomizing type burners for home heating or commercial/industrial burner units with a moderate capacity. See No. 2Distillate for more information.
No. 4 Fuel is a distillate fuel oil that is manufactured by combining distillate and residual fuel oil stocks. It meets ASTM Specification D 396 or Federal Specification VV-F-815C and is widely utilized in industrial plants and commercial burner systems that lack preheating capabilities. It also contains No. 4 diesel fuel, which is suitable for low- and medium-speed diesel engines and meets ASTM Specification D 975.
Is number 2 diesel better?
The most common diesel fuel grade is #2, which is widely available at most gas stations throughout the world. This chemical composition contains the most energy components and lubricating qualities in a single blend and provides the best fuel performance currently available. The majority of scientists agree that #2 diesel fuel will safeguard injection pumps, seals, and other critical engine components.
Because it does not require the same level of refinement to create for sale, #2 is usually less expensive than #1. The disadvantage of #2 diesel is that it has a tendency to thicken into a gel when the temperature drops. During the winter, this frequently leads to sluggish starts and other issues.