Butane hash oil, or BHO, is a cannabis oil created by using butane as a solvent. It’s one of a number of solvent-based extraction techniques available.
The solvent separates the trichomes from the rest of the plant, retaining the strain’s flavors, aromas, and active ingredients. When BHO is extracted, it produces a soft, yellowish wax that, when heated, transforms into oil. Because of its hard consistency, very pure BHO extract is referred to as “shatter.”
THE BHO EXTRACTION METHOD
The plant matter is “washed” with butane to make BHO extract. The solvent carries chemical substances like as terpenes, cannabinoids, lipids, and other chemicals from the plant as it travels over it.
After this stage is completed, the butane solvent must be removed from the final product. To separate the cannabis wax from the butane, a vacuum pump, oven, or heat is utilized.
PROS AND CONS
BHO extraction has long been a popular approach, owing to its speed and low cost. Because the components for making BHO extract are inexpensive and simple to obtain, many people create extract at home using this approach. In an hour or less, you can have a finished product. It’s also known for having a high THC concentration.
However, as the saying goes, you get what you pay for, and this is certainly true when it comes to cannabis extract. Although BHO is inexpensive and simple to use, it has a number of disadvantages.
Despite the fact that many individuals try it at home, the technique is quite risky, especially for beginners. Even if all safety precautions are implemented, the end product has its own risks. It’s impossible to remove all of the butane solvent from the extract. Consumers who smoke or consume BHO are ingesting butane into their body, posing a health risk they may not be aware of.
How does a butane extractor work?
Closed-circuit Butane extraction procedures are more commonly used when considerable amounts of BHO are produced. The closed-loop system has some advantages. There are no opportunities for dangerous gas leaks in particular.
The butane solvent is put into a pressurized tank in closed-loop extraction. To extract terpenes and other cannabis ingredients, the cannabis is placed in an extraction tube and butane (which has no taste or odor) is circulated through the plant.
Although this approach is more secure than open-blasting techniques, extreme vigilance must still be exercised in order to avoid errors and mishaps.
How long does it take for butane to evaporate from BHO?
- Cannabis – You can manufacture batches with as little or as much material as you want, but for technical and economic reasons, at least a half ounce is advised. The yield is significantly influenced by the strain, batch, and overall material quality. The best butane hash oil is made from good, dry, fresh, and uncrushed bud. To get a lower grade of oil, grind them up and perform a second extraction.
- Filtered butane comes in a range of grades depending on how many times it has been filtered to remove contaminants. In general, the higher the quality, the more times it has been filtered; but, above a certain threshold, filtering something more will not make a discernible difference during the method, so be aware of diminishing returns! 4X has proven to be a purity level from which no meaningful improvement in quality can be predicted. N-butane is superior to isobutane, but it is often more expensive and difficult to come by. It is supposed to improve the ultimate product’s quality. For every 1 oz of plant material, you’ll need at least 8 oz of butane. There are a variety of different solvents that can be utilized as well. Butane solvents, whether gaseous or liquid, are extremely flammable.
- Take a mirror or a piece of glass and spray a good amount of liquid butane onto it to test butane of unknown quality. (Press the nozzle in with pliers if necessary.) Wait 5-10 minutes for the butane to dissipate before looking in the mirror for a white residue. Water condensation is not the same as residue. Many will leave a lingering odor, so keep an eye out for it. If your residue has a terrible odor, don’t use it.
- Because of the lesser possibility of chemical leeching and the creation of byproducts associated with the use of plastic, brass, and galvanized steel equipment, an extraction tube made of thick glass or stainless steel is advised. Thick glass can also handle the freezing/heating cycles better than other materials in this extraction.
- A single stage vacuum pump is sufficient for the vacuum chamber and pump. Shorter chambers should be avoided since the oil may bubble high enough to contact the lid.
Is butane extraction illegal?
Hash oil is a popular product among marijuana-based goods that have lately been available. Marijuana hash oil, often known as “honey oil” or “resin,” must be extracted by a chemical procedure. California’s marijuana hash oil rules apply to these. The law has since caught up to this procedure, and individuals who extract the oil face severe penalties under California’s drug laws. Aside from punishment, the legal system can cause substantial harm to a person’s life by establishing a criminal record and identifying their involvement in difficulty whenever a background check is conducted.
The goal of enacting Health and Safety Code 11379.6 was to punish individuals who engage in an activity that puts the public in danger by employing volatile or poisonous chemicals in the manufacturing process.
Bergen v. People, 82 Cal.Rptr.3d 577 (2008).
The legislation outlaws the use of butane, pressure cookers, or other innovative methods to extract marijuana resin in order to generate concentrated cannabis.
It should be emphasized that some of those accused of this crime have used non-butane extraction methods.
This can be done in a variety of ways, some of which are minor and others of which are big.
Despite this, the law currently aims to penalise “extraction”…
Continue reading to learn more about this…
What do you do with BHO after tooth extraction?
Open-loop extraction, also known as open blasting, is popular among BHO enthusiasts, but it’s a risky operation. Users place raw marijuana material and butane within a metal or glass tube to separate cannabinoids from the plant material during open-loop extractions. The butane used for extraction is discharged into the atmosphere when open blasting is utilized. A flame or spark can easily trigger a devastating explosion since butane is exceedingly flammable.
By confining all combustible solvents within a piece of commercial-grade extraction equipment, closed-loop extraction eliminates the risk of gas leakage. Closed-loop extraction is done in professional facilities with city government approval, utilizing third-party certified equipment. The spent butane is also recycled for further use in closed-loop extraction. In comparison to open-loop extraction, the entire process is significantly safer, controlled, and effective.
What Is Vacuum Purging BHO?
A post-processing purge is required for BHO-extracted concentrates in order to eliminate any remaining solvent from the final product. The concentrate is placed in a vacuum oven, where butane is evaporated and removed with the help of a vacuum pump. The solvent off-gasses using low heat and pressure, leaving no trace in the concentrate.
In comparison to ambient pressures, a vacuum oven lowers the atmospheric pressure inside the chamber, allowing compounds to evaporate at lower temperatures. The vacuum oven maintains a constant temperature and cooks any BHO concentrate without reducing its strength or flavor, as well as removing dangerous substances, as shown by third-party lab testing.
Why Is BHO Different From Other Concentrates?
The extraction of butane hash oil (BHO) and the products that arise have several advantages over typical whole-flower buds or other extraction processes. BHO concentrates have a wider range of consistencies, higher potencies, and can have a deeper chemical depiction of the strain’s original profile than solventless concentrates like kief or rosin.
Without harming the volatile terpenes in the buds, BHO extraction technology can delicately separate marijuana’s psychoactive chemicals from the plant. When compared to concentrates without those fragrant terpenes, BHO concentrates like live resin or terp sauce are able to keep a higher-than-normal terpene content, giving it a deeper and fuller flavor.
How Do You Consume BHO Concentrates?
Using a torch to fire the nail or banger for approximately a minute and letting it cool for about 30 seconds before putting a small ‘dab’ of BHO concentrate into the nail chamber and inhaling the vapor was the conventional method of consuming BHO concentrates, often known as ‘dabbing.’ To achieve a more accurate temperature reading on their nail surfaces, users finally upgraded to using thermometer guns.
The most effective tool for consuming BHO concentrates is an e-nail. An electronic nail, also known as an e-nail, is made up of a digital controller that allows users to change the temperature as well as a nail that is coupled to a coil that heats the surface. When compared to high-temperature dabs that can burn out terpenes, E-nails allows customers to take low-temperature dabs rich of cannabinoids and terpenes.
Consumers can use BHO vape pens or vape cartridges created from a number of strains for a more convenient and portable way to consume BHO concentrates.
BHO is more commonly ingested through vape pens than through dabbing due to its convenience. Vape pens are available with a cartridge and battery or as disposable pens with a tasty BHO extract. Quick heating, multiple heating temperatures, and pre-measured doses can all be found in vape pens.
Can You Consume BHO Without Heating?
Decarboxylation, or the process of heating a substance to activate chemical acids into their parent cannabis compounds, is required for BHO concentrates. The therapeutic THC and CBD molecules are created by heating cannabinoid acids like THCA and CBDA. Raw BHO is not only harmful to consume, but it also lacks active chemicals.
How Do You Store BHO?
BHO concentrates have a high concentration of cannabinoids and terpenes, but incorrect storage can impair a product’s efficacy and flavor. If kept cool, dry, and dark, BHO concentrates can last for a year or more. Concentrates can be weakened or rendered unusable by environmental conditions such as light, heat, oxygen, and moisture.
BHO concentrates can be kept in an airtight container lined with parchment paper or in a silicone container. Some users put their sealed concentrates in the refrigerator to extend their shelf life; however, changing temperatures can damage the concentrate’s quality, and freezing concentrates can expose the product to moisture absorption if it is not properly sealed in an airtight container.
What Is Nucleation?
Nucleation can occur as a result of unstable concentrations, temperature changes, time, and humidity, resulting in the separation of terpenes and cannabinoids. Sugary or crystalline cannabis structures can form in nucleated concentrates. In goods like the delicious and powerful sugar wax, the natural separation process displays diamond-like forms under controlled conditions.
What Is Winterization?
The removal of waxes and lipids from the final extract is known as dewaxing. Waxes and lipids have the ability to speed up the nucleation process while also affecting the flavor and smoothness of the concentrate.
De-waxing can be done in a variety of ways, including winterization. BHO is dissolved in a polar solvent, commonly ethanol, at sub-zero temperatures during winterization. Cold temperatures drive lipids to the surface, allowing for more efficient filtering.
Concentrates are the fastest-growing component of the recreational cannabis industry, and they represent the industry’s second-largest market after marijuana flower (it is projected to overtake the number one spot by 2022). In the next two years, an industry that produced over $3 billion in 2018 is expected to more than double.
What is it about extracts and concentrations that makes them so popular? For many customers, it’s the combination of accessibility, portability, and versatility that makes for a far more user-friendly experience. Consumers have a variety of receptacle alternatives, allowing them to consume on their own terms. This access is furthered by portability, which opens up new alternatives for environmental settings, signifying a more liberating experience. And because of its versatility, it may be packed in a variety of ways, with individual ingredients separated to achieve any desired effect, catering to a wide range of demands and preferences.
Concentrates are a very scalable and economical choice for producers. Concentrates are easier to ship and keep for longer periods of time, lowering distribution expenses. Depending on the required output quality and type, they can be bud-based (nug run) or formed from trim and leaf, providing for additional processing options. Perhaps most crucially, product consistency is easier to achieve with the more technologically advanced processors’ standardized operations.
However, there remains the issue of how to deal with the hundreds of additional expectations that are being placed on manufacturers. Producers are left chasing their tails while customers are free to choose their preferred method. Not only do customer preferences in packaging (pens, droppers, canisters), tastes (infused, flavorless, natural), and forms change with the seasons, but there are now additional variables for consumer choice in packaging (pens, droppers, canisters), flavors (infused, flavorless, natural), and forms (tinctures, gummies, salves, vapor).
Because of three tiny words unique to BHO full spectrum extraction BHO particularly answers the diversity of consumer choices and expectations better than other approaches.
A closed-loop extraction method is used to extract butane. To return the gas to its original vessel, the pressure solvent is pushed and pulled through a butane extraction tube. Butane, with a boiling point of 30.2°F, re-condenses quickly without the use of high heat. As a result, butane is the preferred solvent for passive recovery. Because the polar terpenes are left behind, butane tends to provide a more stable extract.
Because propane has a boiling point of -43.6°F, it requires a larger pressure load than butane extraction. The subzero temperature prevents lipids and waxes from being extracted, resulting in a more pure extract. However, without the use of dry ice or liquid gasses, these pressures make passive recovery nearly impossible. To aid in the recovery of propane, a recovery pump is used. Is propane a polar substance? It’s not widely used, so it’s better at extracting various fragrant terpenes.
Many extractor operators prefer to use a butane-propane blend gas. The boiling point of the mixed gas ends up being a middle ground between the two portions of the mixture since they produce an azeotropic mixture. This enables the operator to operate at a slightly higher pressure than pure butane without exceeding 100 PSI. 70 percent Butane to 30 percent Propane (70-30) is a common blend, as is a 50-50 ratio.
At different temperatures, blended gas has varying pressure levels. With greater propane levels, pressure rises as well.
How long should I purge my BHO?
The final step in making high-quality, delicious BHO is vacuum purging. There are a few key points to consider regarding the vacuum purging workflow now. Everyone’s method is unique. The purging procedure for manufacturing BHO is broken out in this diagram.
Run the Vac
Place the BHO in the center of the vacuum oven once it has been spread out thinly on a silicone mat or parchment paper. Set the temperature to your preferred level once the BHO is inside the oven, then gently run the pump to full vac. Set the oven temperature to 110o F once it has nearly reached a full vacuum.
Slow down. As the vacuum is increased, you may notice the BHO bubbling up and producing a muffin-like top, which is the butane outgassing. The boiling decreases over time, and there are less bubbles (this may take a few hours or days).
The amount of butane present in the BHO after the water bath, as well as the ambient room temperature, determine how long you spend outgassing the butane. It will be more difficult to remove the solvent if your room is cooler. To judge the quality of the BHO, many extractors merely glance at it. The vacuum purging is complete when the bubbles stop and the texture and consistency of the BHO do not alter under vacuum pressure.
Remove All Bubbles
You turn the thin layer of shatter on the silicone mat after your desired purging cycle (up to 124 hours), and repeat the operation with the same time and pressure parameters as previously. Your bubbling will be less strong during the second pull, but there will still be some bubbling. You can gradually increase the temperature when the boiling subsides (if you started at about 105o F, you may increase it to 110o F). Allow the BHO to sit in the full vacuum for as long as you want (about 6-8 hours).
Flip the slab of BHO as needed, adjusting the temperature, pressure, and time as needed to achieve the desired end result (shatter, live resin, distillate, etc).
To avoid a mess when flipping the BHO, use PTFE sheets instead of standard parchment paper with silicone covering. Make sure they’re heatproof, food-safe, and nonstick. Solvent-proof PTFE sheets allow you to purge without absorbing solvent into the sheet. Furthermore, its non-stick properties ensure that no terpenes are retained.
On top of the silicone mat, place a single sheet. Using your BHO, transfer it to the sheet. When you’re ready to flip the BHO, place another sheet on top while it’s still warm.
Place the BHO on a cool surface like a stone counter, a chill block, or a piece of cool steel. Allow the temperature of the cannabis extract to drop to the bottom. After a few minutes, quickly flip over the thin layer of extract and peel away the top sheet. When opposed to a heated extract, the cooling helps it not stick as much. If you can’t locate this, parchment paper will suffice. Any non-stick paper would suffice. Transparent sheets, in theory, make it easier to see the product.
Consider residual solvent testing a sample of your finished product if necessary to detect hazardous amounts of butane or propane solvent, as well as other impurities. To detect each cannabis ingredient and contaminant, labs utilize a variety of chromatography equipment.
How do I know if my BHO has butane?
Dependence on butane hash oil is possible, and it has an impact on many people. It is thought that if BHO is used at a slower rate, it will form a habit. Long-term use will surely aid in the development of resistance to the medicine. As a result of this, dependency develops, and withdrawal may occur if the person stops using, prompting some people to use only to avoid it. As a result, a pattern of BHO reliance emerges.
Unlawful possession of hashish for personal use
In most cases, illegally possessing more than eight grams of concentrated cannabis for personal use (known as “simple possession”) is a misdemeanor.
Defendants under the age of 18 who have more than eight grams of hashish will receive just a warning.
HS 11357 makes it illegal for anyone under the age of twenty-one (21) to possess any amount of concentrated cannabis. This infraction, however, is solely a California infraction. It is penalized by a $100 fine for those over the age of 18, as well as drug therapy and community service for those under the age of 18. 41
Unlawful production of hashish
For most defendants, producing more than eight grams of hashish illegally is a misdemeanor. Up to six months in county jail is the penalty.
However, some defendants will face felony charges for producing more than eight grams of hashish illegally. This punishment scheme is applicable to the following:
- Defendants who have been convicted of producing or cultivating excessive amounts of hashish or marijuana on two or more previous occasions. 42
Producing concentrated cannabis by chemical extraction California Health and Safety Code 11379.6
It is illegal to produce hashish using chemical extraction. The following are the consequences:
If you are sentenced to state prison rather than county jail in California, your term will be served in state prison.
If you’ve committed many felonies, you’ll face a sentencing enhancement44.
Possessing concentrated cannabis with intent to sell it
Most defendants face a misdemeanor charge of possessing concentrated cannabis with the intent to sell it without a license, which can result in up to six (6) months in county jail.
Possession of hashish for the purpose of illicit sale, on the other hand, is a felony for some defendantsthose who:
- Have been convicted of one of a number of especially serious violent felonies or a sex crime for which they are required to register as a sex offender;
- Have two (2) or more prior marijuana or concentrated cannabis possession for sale misdemeanor convictions; or
- Possession of concentrated cannabis for sale in connection with the sale or attempted sale of cannabis to a minor.
The felony punishment for such individuals will be 16 months in prison, or two or three years in county jail, and a fine of up to $20,00045.
Unlawful sale or transport for sale of hashish
Most defendants face a misdemeanor charge of selling hashish without a license or carrying it with the intent to sell it without a license, which can result in up to six months in county jail.
- Defendants who have previously been convicted of one of a number of especially serious violent felonies or a sex offence for which they must register as a sex offender;
- Defendants with two (2) or more prior convictions for HS 11360 marijuana sale/transport;
- Defendants who sold, attempted to sell, or offered to sell or furnish concentrated cannabis to a person under the age of 18; and
- Defendants who imported, attempted to import, or offered to import more than eight grams of concentrated cannabis into California, or transported, attempted/offered to transport out of California for sale.
Drug treatment in lieu of jail time
Nonviolent first- and second-time offenders arrested for simple possession or manufacture of more than eight grams of hashish for personal use may be eligible for drug treatment diversion.
There are two legal statutes that allow for this type of diversion.
Each has its own set of eligibility criteria and penalties.
If you qualify for both, an expert criminal defense lawyer can assist you decide which option is best for you.
Deferred entry of judgment (DEJ) California Penal Code 1000 PC
If you were arrested for having or producing more than eight grams of hashish for personal use, you may be entitled to have your sentence postponed while you finish drug treatment. “Deferred entry of judgment (DEJ)” is the term for this.
You must plead guilty to the charges and file a presentencing petition with the judge to request deferred entry of judgment under PC 1000.
If the judge grants your appeal, your sentence will be postponed for at least 18 months while you undertake drug treatment (but not more than three years).
The judge will dismiss your case after receiving confirmation that you have successfully completed such treatment.
The arrest, for the most part, vanishes after your case is dismissed.
Most crucially, most employment, housing, and similar applications will not require you to divulge it.
There is evidence that your offense includes certain narcotics-related crimes.
While enrolled in a drug treatment program under PC 1000, you may be forced to have your urine tested. The results of such a urine study, on the other hand, are inadmissible as the basis for any new criminal charges. 50
Proposition 36 the “Substance Abuse and Crime Prevention Act of 2000
To get drug treatment instead of jail time, you don’t always have to plead guilty and earn a DEJ.
The court is required to sentence qualified nonviolent first- and second-time offenders charged of simple possession of narcotics to treatment under Proposition 36, the “Substance Abuse and Crime Prevention Act of 2000.”
51 Even if your petition for DEJ was refused, you are eligible for Prop. 36 punishment.
- If you are convicted of generating more than eight grams of concentrated cannabis, you will not be eligible for a Prop. 36 sentence. Only simple possession is covered by Prop. 36.
- DEJ is a presentencing disposition under PC 1000.
- Prop. 36 only applies if you have pleaded guilty or no contest to simple possession or have been found guilty of it.
- The court has discretion in allowing drug treatment under PC 1000.
- If you qualify for drug treatment under Prop. 36, the judge must sentence you to it.
- You will be sentenced to probation under Proposition 36.
- Your probation includes a number of conditions, including drug treatment.
- Others, such as counseling or community service, may be available.
- If you fail to meet any of your probationary conditions, the judge may sentence you to prison.
- Instead of the 18 months necessary under PC 1000, Prop. 36 treatment usually lasts only one year.
- The judge will hold a hearing after the drug treatment under Prop. 36 is completed.
- If the judge finds that you have violated any of your probationary conditions or that you are likely to take drugs again, you may be sentenced to prison.
The judge will dismiss your case and overturn your conviction if you successfully complete drug treatment and any other probationary conditions.