Marine diesel oil (MDO) is a generic term for marine fuels made up of various distillates (also known as marine gasoil) and heavy fuel oil mixes. Unlike the diesel fuel used in automobiles and trucks on land, marine diesel oil is not a pure distillate. The various blending ratios of marine diesel oil can be regulated directly by refinery processes or by mixing ready-made marine fuels. Diesel fuel is identical to marine diesel, except it has a higher density. Marine diesel oil, unlike heavy fuel oil (HFO), does not require heating during storage.
The terms “marine diesel oil” and “intermediate fuel oil” are occasionally used interchangeably (IFO). Marine diesel oil, in its strictest definition, refers to blends containing only a tiny amount of heavy fuel oil. As a result, some textbooks classify this sort of marine diesel oil as a distillate, which means it is also classified as a medium distillate. The proportion of heavy fuel oil in intermediate fuel oils, on the other hand, is higher. As a result, several textbooks, standards/norms, and publications classify IFO kinds with particularly large concentrations of heavy fuel oil as heavy fuel oils. As a result, the following succinct summaries emerge:
- In a strict sense, marine diesel oil is: Distillates and heavy fuel oil are mixed together, but the heavy fuel oil level is quite low.
Is heavy fuel oil the same as diesel?
It’s hefty. Several refining procedures are used to recover the lighter hydrocarbons in the oil production process. What’s left is a sludge-like residue left over following the oil refining process’ conclusion. It has a thick consistency (similar to peanut butter) and is known to contain a variety of chemicals that can cause a variety of health problems. To help a vessel float, Heavy Fuel Oil must be combined with lighter fuels like Diesel.
Number 6 Fuel Oil (Bunker C) and Very Low Sulfur Fuel Oil are two technical names for the same commodity (VLSFO).
Fuel oil, heavy oil, marine fuel, furnace oil, marine heavy fuel oil, bunker oil, and bunker fuel are all terms that are used interchangeably.
These are all different names for the same thing: the oil that is transported on board and used to power the ship’s engine.
It’s bulky, and it’s used to power the ship’s engine.
A word about units: in oil spills, units are frequently interchanged. Because the number of gallons (volume) always sounds larger than the number of metric tons (weight), oil spills are frequently reported in metric tons. Once the fuel grade is determined, switching from one to the other is simple.
Is fuel oil and diesel fuel the same?
The difference between heating oil, off-road diesel fuel, and on-road diesel fuel is a frequent question and misconception that I receive from customers. Is there a distinction? Yes. Price, efficiency, taxation, and even equipment failure can all be affected by the variances between these fuels. I’m writing this specifically for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and each particular fuel.
Heating Oil – Heating oil is a colored fuel with a sulfur concentration of 2,000 parts per million (parts per million). Pennsylvania is the only Northeastern state that has yet to vote on or adopt legislation lowering the sulfur content of heating oil to 15 parts per million. If they haven’t already, most Northeastern states have paved the way for a drop in the sulfur content of heating oil, either in phases or all at once. Most states now have a heating oil specification with a minimal sulfur concentration of st, 2016, but there are still numerous political obstacles to overcome. Almost all state, local, and independent heating oil dealers in Pennsylvania support switching to the Ultra-Low Sulfur spec (ULS) as soon as possible.
Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel or Off-Road Diesel Fuel Dyed Diesel Fuel (Off-Road Diesel Fuel is known by a variety of acronyms, including Dyed Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel and Non-Road Locomotive Marine, to name a few.) Off-Road Diesel Fuel (or, as we’ll refer to it in this article, Off-Road Diesel Fuel) is not the same as heating oil. Even though they are the same color, red (the red dye in the fuel is used to identify for tax purposes), Heating Oil and Off-Road Diesel Fuel are not the same fuel. Off-Road Diesel Fuel in Pennsylvania is Ultra-Low Sulfur, which means it won’t damage your equipment’s warranty. Dye has no effect on performance and has no effect on the equipment. Please double-check with the manufacturer before using to ensure that this is the case, since some manufacturers have used this tactic in the past to avoid paying warranty claims. Boroughs and municipalities will save money by using NRLM since they will not have to pay taxes on the fuel when it is delivered.
On-Road Diesel Fuel On-Road Diesel Fuel is clear or has a subtle greenish tint to it. The state requires that on-road diesel fuel have a minimum of 2% biodiesel blend and be Ultra-Low Sulfur.
Finally, many individuals are unaware of the benefits of biodiesel fuel. To be clear, Bio-Diesel or BIOHEAT is a mixture of biodegradable organic ingredients like soybean oil. It’s a soy-based fuel made in the United States that helps to sustain our country’s farmers while also reducing our reliance on foreign oil. It has the highest BTU concentration of any alternative fuel and burns exceedingly cleanly. It is not created in the same way as ethanol is, in that it removes food from the food chain. It’s actually a byproduct of the standard soy bean processing. It can also be created from a variety of other ingredients, including used cooking oil and grease, linseed oil, coconut oil, and coffee beans, to mention a few.
What is the difference between MDO and MGO?
To propel their engines and convey their vast loads to various ports, the giant ships waste tons of gasoline every day. Ship engines have been known to use low-grade fuel oil to reduce a ship’s operating costs, as fuel prices can account for 30-50 percent of a ship’s total operating costs. It’s also not an easy decision to utilize low-grade fuel oil like Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO) because the ship won’t be able to enter controlled Emission Control Areas (ECAs). As a result, beginning in 2015, refineries are generating fewer of these residual HFO fuels each year.
The shipping business is one of the most environmentally conscious subsectors of the transportation industry, adhering to strict IMO environmental regulations when transporting large freight throughout the world. The Marine Environmental Protection Committee (MEPC) has made it a priority to reduce air pollution, and as a result, various laws have been enacted to limit hazardous emissions from ships such as CO2, SOx, and NOx. NOx and SOx are both combustion products that are released into the atmosphere as smoke.
With the rapid evolution of ship technology, the fuel used to power marine engines and designs may need to evolve at a similar rate to keep up.
Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO), the dirtiest and most polluting residual fuel for ships, is being seriously evaluated to be replaced with marine fuels. For the maritime industry, they include LNG, Marine Gas Oil (MGO), Marine Diesel Oil (MDO), Ammonia (NH3), Methanol (CH3OH), Fuel Cell Batteries, Hydrogen (H), Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), and Biofuels.
Because LNG and MGO are good fuels with lower carbon dioxide (CO2) and minimal nitrogen oxide (NOx) and sulphur oxide (SOx) emissions than HFO, they are the most favored and widely utilized fuels in substitute of HFO.
Ammonia, Methanol, Hydrogen, Fuel Cell Batteries, LPG, and Biofuel are all regarded cleaner fuels than HFO, but they still require additional engineering testing for long-haul transportation reliability. LPG and hydrogen are both environmentally friendly. Although ammonia is a low-carbon fuel, it produces a lot of NOx and has a low flammability. Methanol is carbon-free and compliant with SOx, NOx, and particulate matter (PM) emissions by 2020, although it has a low flashpoint of 12°C.
Distillates. MGO (Marine Gas Oil) is a high-quality marine fuel made entirely of distillates. All of the components of crude oil that evaporate during distillation and are then condensed from gas to liquid are known as distillates.
MGO is usually made up of a mixture of different distillates. MDO is a distillate combined with HFO that may contain very minute amounts of black refinery feed stock, whereas MGO is made entirely of distillates. Intermediate Fuel Oil is the result of blending residual fuel oil with distillates (IFO).
Density. The density of MGO is higher than that of MDO. MGO has a maximum density of 890 kg/m3 at 15°C, however it is closer to 860 kg/m3 at that temperature. MDO, on the other hand, has a maximum density of 900 kg/cm3 when heated to 15°C. The density of fuel oil is used to calculate the amount of fuel oil provided during the bunkering method and to determine the ignition quality of a fuel.
Flashpoint. MGO is colorized red and has an essentially transparent to light yellowish brownish color. In inland waterway shipping, a marine fuel such as heating oil is colorized with a yellow dye. These safeguards are in place to detect the nature of use and prevent the misuse of low-taxed, relatively inexpensive heating oil, which is frequently used in inland commerce.
MGO and regular heating oil have a lot of the same characteristics. As a result, when naval fuel is in short supply, heating oil is occasionally used as a substitute. MGO has a flashpoint of 65-850 degrees Celsius. As a result, the flashpoint of the relabeled heating oil used to replace MGO ship fuel must be at least 60°C. The flashpoint of MDO is 61°C. MGO and MDO, on the other hand, both have a minimum flashpoint of 60°C.
The flashpoint of a fuel is the temperature at which the vapor of a heated fuel ignites. Using a test flame, this is done under certain test conditions. All heavy fuels used onboard vessels must have a flashpoint of at least 60°C, according to SOLAS and IMO. Furthermore, the ship’s engine technology, as well as any installed exhaust filter systems, must be compatible with the low sulfur level of the heating oil. The new fuels, on the other hand, have a substantially lower flashpoint (according to IMO safety requirements).
Viscosity. MGO has a lower viscosity than MDO or HFO, therefore it may need to be chilled before use in two-stroke marine diesel engines to maintain engine design viscosity levels and avoid fuel pump wear. Because MGO is made up of lighter distillates, it has a low viscosity and can be fed into engines at temperatures as low as 20°C, as opposed to MDO, which has a high proportion of HFO and is thus more difficult to pump into engines.
The resistance inside the fluid fuel that operates against the flow is known as viscosity. The dynamic viscosity of a fluid per unit of density is represented by kinematic viscosity. The viscosity of the gasoline is an important parameter because it determines how easy it is to atomize the fuel and how easy it is to pump it through the system.
At 400°C, MGO has a kinematic viscosity of 5-7 cSt (centistoke). At 400°C, MDO has a kinematic viscosity of 811 cSt. The viscosities of IFO 180 and IFO 380 are 180 mm2/s and 380 mm2/s, respectively.
The ISO 3448 kinematic viscosity grading system is based on the kinematic viscosity in centistoke (cSt) at 40°C, making it the international standard.
Cetane Index is a measure of the amount of cetane in the The minimum cetane index for MGO is 40, while the minimum cetane index for MDO is 35. The greater the cetane index, the more flammable the substance. The lower the cetane index, the less flammable the fuel is, and the longer the burn time.
Content of Sulfur. MGO is made with various amounts of sulfur, however its maximum sulfur content is lower than that of HFO. MGO is a gasoline oil with a very low sulfur content (ULSFO). Because ULSFO-MGO contains less than 0.1 percent sulphur, it can be utilized in Emission Control Areas (ECAs). MDO, on the other hand, has a sulphur concentration of 2%, and effective January 1, 2020, IFO will follow HFO’s sulphur content standard of 0.5 percent m/m (mass by mass) per MARPOL. The ECAs set a sulfur emission limit that is comparable to ULSFOMGO. Alternatively, filtration systems or scrubbers can be used to meet this limit, but they are very expensive.
Sulphur content in fuel is one of the main causes of sulphur oxide (SO2) pollution from ships, a pollutant that the International Maritime Organization (IMO) is closely monitoring. MGO emissions contain much less particulate matter and soot than marine fuels with a higher or lower amount of HFO. Refineries are also optimizing their production methods to create less and less residual fuel HFO because the sulfur content of distillate fuel can easily be kept very low.
Pricing. When compared to all other fuel sources, MGO has been dubbed the most expensive. This is no longer the case, as Methanol has entered the fray, and it is now more expensive than MGO, even with its price drop. In addition, the sharp drop in LNG and TTF prices (see table) signals to industry insiders that MGO may be used more in the future, and that ship engine technology may adapt to MGO as a result. MGO and MDO fuels have reduced in price by 54%, compared to an 87 percent drop in LNG costs, but they are still much more expensive than LNG, IFO, TTF, and Crude Oil. As a result, the global transition to MGO as the future maritime fuel is unlikely to occur in the near to medium term. LNG will most certainly continue to be the favored fuel over MGO, owing to its lower cost.
However, the globe is looking for a future maritime fuel that is ultra-clean and zero-emission. That is, it is cleaner than LNG, which emits CO2 and methane. And MGO, as a pure distillate and an excellent marine fuel, may just take the top spot for being carbon-free and emitting minimal NOx and SOx.
Here are some examples of fuel pricing in US dollars per million metric British thermal unit (US$/mmBTU) for various fuel types:
Is No 2 fuel oil the same as diesel?
In terms of chemical composition, diesel fuel and #2 fuel oil are nearly identical. The key distinction is in how they are intended to be used. #2 fuel oil is tax-free, which keeps prices low and makes it easier for families to heat their homes. After all, in the cold, this is a need. Instead of cars, it’s used in boilers and furnaces. It even has the same red color as untaxed diesel. Because of its intended usage, this fuel oil is commonly referred to as home heating oil.
For lower viscosity and improved furnace efficiency, #2 fuel oil can be blended with #1 fuel oil. This is also known as the kerosene mix or the home heating oil winter blend by some companies.
Given their similarities, these two types of fuel might theoretically be used interchangeably. However, there are several reasons why this is not commonly done in practice. If your furnace runs out of fuel and deliveries are delayed, you can go to a pump and purchase diesel as an alternative. Because diesel is more expensive than N#2 fuel oil, it’s not practicable for long-term use, although it might be worth it in an emergency.
Putting #2 fuel oil in a diesel vehicle is never a good idea. It’s against the law due to tax rules. If you’re pulled over and the cops notice you’re using red-dyed gas, you could face charges. Follow the law and only use each product for its authorized use.
Why is home heating oil more expensive than diesel?
The price of crude oil is the key factor of both home heating oil and diesel fuel prices. Refining costs (13 percent), distribution and marketing costs (12 percent), and taxes are the remaining components (12 percent ). The cost of crude oil accounts for 61% of the retail price of diesel fuel.
What is Number 1 diesel used for?
The fundamental difference between Diesel #1 and Diesel #2 is the cetane rating, which, like the octane of gasoline, indicates igniting ease. It’s all about fuel efficiency, volatility, and seasonality, really.
Less wear on your engines’ batteries implies a faster and more efficient start. The increased cetane grade also helps diesel engines run more smoothly by lowering maintenance requirements.
The additional lubricants in Premium Diesel assist keep fuel system parts moving easily. The fuel pump’s and other fuel system components’ lives are extended as a result of the reduced friction.
Fuel systems can become clogged with sediments and other particles over time. While the engine is operating, detergents are injected to Diesel #1 to clean injectors and other fuel system components. Not only does a clean fuel system last longer, but it also enhances fuel efficiency and horsepower production.
Diesel #1 contains lubricants and detergents, as well as other fuel additives that improve engine performance and save downtime. Even in a well-sealed fuel system, air moisture can find its way in and cause major engine problems. Demulsifiers in premium Diesel work to separate emulsified water from the fuel so that it can be filtered out; even in a well-sealed fuel system, air moisture can find its way in and cause major engine problems. Corrosion inhibitors keep rust and corrosion at bay, while stabilizers keep blockages and buildup at bay.
Diesel #1 is sometimes known as winter diesel since it operates better in colder conditions than Diesel #2. It has a lower viscosity and does not gel when exposed to cold temperatures. Most stations sell a premium Diesel blend that is tailored to the local climate.
While premium diesel has a number of advantages, such as fewer maintenance and equipment downtime, regular diesel is less expensive at the pump, which is an essential consideration. However, total cost of ownership should take into account not only the cost savings from the fuel, but also the impact on ongoing maintenance costs. The age and size of your fleet may play a role in deciding between Diesel #1 and Diesel #2.
When deciding between Diesel #1 and Diesel #2 for your fleet, keep in mind that premium Diesel quality differs from station to station. If you choose Diesel #1, make sure your drivers get their fuel at reliable high-volume stations.
Do you want to learn more about the effects of diesel choices on fuel systems? To talk with an equipment professional, contact your nearest Papé Kenworth office now.
Is it OK to use diesel fuel in a oil furnace?
If you run out of heating oil and don’t want to wait days for a refill, you can use diesel fuel. In almost all furnaces, diesel, as supplied at many gas stations, is a suitable replacement for home heating oil. Regular gasoline should not be used in your oil tank because it will harm your furnace and cause other issues.
How long will 5 gallons of diesel last in oil tank?
The length of time that fuel will last you is determined by things such as how warm you want your home to be and the size of your home. However, five to ten liters of fuel or kerosene will last you one to two days in most cases. Keep this in mind when calculating how much diesel to buy to get you through till your next heating oil shipment arrives.
Consider obtaining extra diesel on the upside of ten gallons if you have a larger home. This will keep your home warm and comfortable until your next supply arrives.