What is urea used for diesel?
DEFendalTM Diesel Exhaust Fluid in Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems contains 32.5 percent urea and 67.5 percent DI water (SCR). The fluid is used to minimize NOx pollution in exhaust gases produced by diesel, dual-fuel, and lean-burn natural gas engines.
What does urea do to diesel exhaust?
DEF (Diesel Exhaust Fluid) is made with automotive-grade urea, which is significantly purer than fertilizer urea. The Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system will degrade if a lower-quality fertilizer, urea, is used, and the vehicle would eventually break down. It may also cause the sensors to believe the truck’s DEF tank is empty in the near term, triggering a de-rating event that reduces engine power and eventually prevents the engine from restarting.
Can a diesel engine run without urea?
A catalyst cannot function without urea. Urea injection technology is likely to be used in more modern diesel vehicles in the near future, including Mercedes-2010 Benz’s E320.
Why do trucks use urea?
You may have never heard of urea, but the chemical compound’s worldwide shortage may bring Australia’s supply chain to a halt in a matter of weeks.
The molecule, which is a vital ingredient in the diesel exhaust fluid AdBlue and a major component in fertilizer, is in low supply around the world.
The main cause of the scarcity is China’s prohibition on urea exports, which previously supplied 80 percent of Australia’s urea supplies. This is because the price of fertilizer has risen dramatically, and China wants to curb the rate of increase.
However, because urea is sprayed into the exhaust systems of modern diesel cars to lower emissions, which is a necessity for trucks, passenger vehicles, and tractors, this could inadvertently take many of Australia’s trucks off the road.
So, what is urea, and how serious is the supply chain disruption in Australia?
Should I use a diesel fuel additive?
While the country’s diesel fuel supply is generally reliable, it is not always consistent. When constructing and certifying diesel engines, manufacturers take into account quality swings. In general, they oppose or advise against the use of fuel additives.
“We do not advise Volvo truck owners to add additives to their diesel fuel.” If additives are required, they should be added at the gasoline supplier terminal, according to John Moore, Volvo Trucks North America’s powertrain product marketing manager.
Last year, Cummins became the first company to publicly support a fuel additive, endorsing two Power Service products, Diesel Kleen + Cetane Boost and Diesel Fuel Supplement + Cetane Boost.
“Cummins engines are designed, developed, graded, and built to certify and function efficiently on commercially available diesel fuel,” according to Josh Hahn, Cummins Filtration’s coolants and chemicals business leader. “However, Cummins acknowledges that there are low-quality fuels on the market that don’t always meet ASTM D975, and that these fuel concerns can cause a range of problems for customers, including poor lubricity, low cetane numbers, low-temperature operability issues, and injector deposits.” When pour-point depressants, wax-crystal modifiers, or de-icers are required in cold weather operations, fuel additives may be required.”
“In recent years, diesel fuel quality has become increasingly critical as engines evolve and the diesel fuel manufacturing processes change,” said Roger England, director of technical quality and materials engineering for Cummins, when the Power Service alliance was announced last year.
That’s easy to comprehend when emissions regulations tighten and engine technology advances, resulting in tighter mechanical and engineering tolerances. In summary, because fuel supply uncertainty is unlikely to improve, engine manufacturers such as Cummins are taking steps to level the playing field.
Meanwhile, Detroit Diesel says it has no additional requirements beyond current ASTM specifications, but recommends that customers take steps to ensure they are utilizing high-quality gasoline.
“While Detroit does not directly advise any brand or type of fuel additive, we recommend Top Tier diesel fuel since it addresses many of the flaws in ASTM regulations addressing diesel fuel quality,” says Jason Martin, HDEP thermodynamics and fuel map management manager at DTNA. “Top Tier is a voluntary retailer program that addresses fuel stability and lubricity, as well as detergency, water, and particles factors that help sustain the fuel system’s performance over the engine’s lifespan, which is a contributing factor to ensuring top engine performance.”
In North America, Top Tier diesel is available from a variety of vendors. “Because shops may also offer non-additized diesel fuel or diesel that does not satisfy the Top Tier regulations,” the website warns, “always verify the dispenser.”
Do you need DEF fluid?
We get a lot of questions about DEF and how to use it effectively on your forecourt, so we asked the expertise of Danny Seals, a forecourt solutions expert, to provide us with some simple answers.
What is DEF?
DEF is a urea-water solution that is injected into the exhaust stream of diesel automobiles to convert NOx gases (harmful emissions) into nitrogen and water. Vehicle manufacturers introduced a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology to meet EPA emissions limits in 2010. This is a strategy to achieve the requirements without sacrificing engine performance or fuel economy. DEF isn’t a fuel additive, and it’s kept in its own tank.
Who needs DEF, why?
DEF is required for medium and heavy-duty vehicles equipped with diesel engines manufactured after 2010. To meet emissions rules, the vehicle is configured to inject DEF into the exhaust stream. The engine performance will be diminished and lower speeds will be imposed if the vehicle is allowed to run out of DEF.
What are the different delivery modes of DEF?
DEF is available in a variety of forms. A driver can purchase jugs/containers in a variety of sizes. This necessitates the driver physically transferring the DEF into the car. When installed, DEF can also be dispensed into the vehicle using a fueling dispenser.
Which retailers should offer DEF and what indicators can they use to decide?
Because there is such a vast population of automobiles on the road, DEF is an excellent product for all c-stores to offer. Retailers who sell diesel at their gas stations can utilize the volume sold to estimate the number of diesel customers they have. DEF is required by the majority of today’s heavy-duty trucks. Locations with a separate large truck filling station might think about putting DEF in the dispensers. Because they buy DEF in quantity to keep in their tanks, this results in higher profit margins. Some places that sell a lot of diesel on their forecourt should also consider a dispenser option.
How can Gilbarco help retailers get into DEF?
Since the inception of DEF requirements, Gilbarco has been the industry leader in DEF dispensers. Over the years, we’ve worked with large stores to provide dispenser functionality, and we’ve established the industry standard for this service. Gilbarco assists merchants in entering the DEF dispensing market by providing factory-installed options and retrofitting existing dispensers where DEF is stored in bulk.
What is the blue additive for diesel?
AdBlue is a liquid that is added to diesel cars to help them emit fewer hazardous pollutants. AdBlue is a brand name for diesel exhaust fluid, which is a technical term. It’s a mixture of distilled water and urea, a nitrogen-based compound found in urine and fertilizers. It’s non-toxic, colorless, and has a subtle sweetness to it. If you get some on your hands, it feels a little sticky, but it washes off easily.
How often does a diesel truck need DEF?
When it’s time to change your DEF, all newer diesel vehicles include a dashboard warning system. To figure out how much you’ll need, you’ll need to know your engine’s efficiency.
When compared to the amount of fuel used, DEF is consumed at a rate of roughly 2-3%. For a car with a 65-gallon gas tank, this means between 1.2 and 2.0 gallons of DEF will be necessary. DEF should be replenished every third or fourth time you fill up a five-gallon DEF tank. The simplest method to avoid an issue is to simply top off on a regular basis.
Do diesel trucks need AdBlue?
A defence specialist has warned that a lack of the diesel exhaust additive AdBlue might disrupt Australia’s national fuel supply.
The great bulk of petrol and diesel in Australia is transported by trucks, rather than railways or coastal marine tankers, according to John Blackburn, a former deputy head of the Royal Australian Air Force and an expert on fuel security.
“As a result, if this has an impact on vehicles and logistics, it will have an impact on fuel supplies,” Blackburn warned.
Most modern diesel engines require AdBlue to reduce pollutants, but there are shortages because the product’s main ingredient, urea, which is also used as a fertilizer, is running dangerously low after China prohibited exports. The price of gas, which is the major feedstock for urea, is also contributing to the scarcity.
According to the National Road Deliver Association (NatRoad), huge road tankers transport practically all fuel in Australia.
According to a spokeswoman for the association, all of these gasoline vehicles are likely to be among the 1.5 million trucks affected by the AdBlue shortage.
“The larger the truck, the more modern it is, and the more probable it is to be diesel-powered, according to the spokeswoman.
There were 20.1 million registered motor vehicles in January of this year, with trucks accounting for 15.6 percent (4.1 million). Diesel vehicles now account for 26.4 percent of all vehicles, up from 20.9 percent in 2016, and AdBlue is used in practically all modern diesel engines (those manufactured in the last ten years).
According to NatRoad, AdBlue is used by more than 40% of Australian freight trucks, but the ratio would be higher for long-haul tankers.
According to a NatRoad official, the shortfall is affecting the bush the hardest and first.
“NatRoad is receiving calls from members in regional areas who are complaining that their supplies have run out or that their costs have risen,” he said.
“AdBlue was selling for 70c a litre a few weeks ago, and now we’re hearing that certain regions are charging $2 and $3 per litre at the pump. This indicates a significant supply scarcity or price gouging.”
Angus Taylor, Australia’s energy minister, has established an AdBlue team chaired by James Fazzino, chair of Manufacturing Australia, with Andrew Liveris, former chairman and CEO of Dow Chemical Company, and Dr. Cathy Foley, Australia’s chief scientist.
Taylor said the government was working together with industry to secure a reliable, long-term supply of diesel exhaust fluid, including exploring foreign possibilities for refined urea, strengthening local manufacturing capabilities, and expanding vehicle technical options.
It is understood that AdBlue and refined urea supplies have been secured for seven weeks. According to numbers issued on Wednesday, Australia held 98 days of petroleum stock in October, including inventories arriving in Australia, compared to an average of 81 days in 2020.
Blackburn is the chairman of the Institute for Integrated Economic Research-Australia, which studies essential supply chains, and he wrote a report for the NRMA in 2014 on Australia’s liquid fuel security.
He highlighted a more current 2019 assessment by Australia’s environment and energy department on liquid fuel security, which identified Australia as a global anomaly when it comes to fuel security.
“When we look at countries with similar economies, most perceive fuel security as a strategic competency, and they take steps to manage it accordingly,” the research stated.
“In comparison, Australia has decided to apply little regulation and government intervention in the pursuit of an efficient market that provides fuel to Australians at the lowest feasible price.”
The investigation found a lack of understanding of the supply chain and concluded that present legislation is ineffective “It’s right for the job,” Blackburn said.
“When you only have three weeks of supplies, the legislation won’t allow the government to ration petroleum quickly enough to deal with the supply chain disruption,” Blackburn said.
“So I wouldn’t be surprised if we’re dealing with the same issue now. There might not be any legislation in place to allow the government to act swiftly enough to begin restricting this item.”
Suppliers are already rationing AdBlue after the Trucking Industry Council, the industry’s main organization, advised against tampering with emissions systems, citing the fact that all current trucks are required by law to fulfill Australian Design Rule (ADR) regulations.
The car emission laws, according to Mark Hammond, TIC principal technical engineer, are in place to protect the health of all Australians.
“Asthma, headaches, eye discomfort, loss of appetite, corroded teeth, persistently diminished lung function, and cancer are all symptoms of untreated exhaust pollution, according to Hammond.
“Turning off a truck’s emission system is illegal, and tampering with such a system should be opposed by everyone in the industry.”
Emma Germano, president of the Victorian Farmers Federation, said that while the government was aware of the problem and working to address it, Covid had proven the fragility of our supply chains. AdBlue was a software program that “Like a canary in a coal mine.”
“We need that product’s supply because we don’t want to go backwards in terms of environmental effect due to supply chain instability,” Germano added.
Timber pallets, fertilizer, chemicals, shipping containers, and personnel are just a few of the agriculture industry’s shortages this year.
“As an industry, we need to be advocating for supply chain mapping, both inputs and outputs, so we can figure out what inputs are required for agriculture to work,” Germano added.
Last week, Bev Andrews, the director of National Logistics, a small trucking company based in Victoria, received word from her supplier that there was a shortage.
She said the scarcity comes at an especially awful time because of the Christmas rush to supply goods, but she is more concerned about what it means for her company’s long-term future.
Andrews now has a 5,000 gallon tank of AdBlue that will last until the end of December for the 20 trucks she runs, but her current supplier has indicated uncertainty regarding future supplies.
In the space of a week, she claims, the price of available AdBlue has risen from 45c per litre to $2.20 per litre.
The present shortfalls, according to Blackburn, prove that Australia’s supply chain analysis is flawed “Absolutely rudimentary.”
“There appears to be an ingrained confidence in neoliberalism, particularly among the incumbent government, that market forces would take care of everything,” Blackburn said. “They have certainly gone that course with fuel security – until the attempt to keep some refineries operating.”
What happens if I don’t use def fluid?
Some trucks that had low quantities of DEF fluid or no DEF fluid ran sluggishly and couldn’t travel faster than 5 mph. The truck’s power output drops dramatically, and if the vehicle runs out of fluid, it won’t start or go faster than 5 mph. Until the fluid is replenished, a red warning signal appears on the dashboard screen.
Manufacturers must also include a device on the dashboard display that will notify the driver if the Diesel Exhaust Fluid tank level falls below 10%.
An amber warning light will appear on the dashboard display when the DEF level in the tank drops below ten percent. When the percentage falls below 5%, the light begins to flash, and when the percentage drops below 2.5 percent, the lights become brighter.