When it comes to diesel engines, the agency has tightened rules since 1970. Prior to 2008, no one had to be concerned about the emissions that their equipment or vehicles produced; nonetheless, the first step was taken when the EPA mandated the installation of diesel particle filters on all 3/4-ton and bigger trucks. The EPA introduced diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) 2010 with the purpose of further decreasing engine emissions, particularly NOx and particulate matter. NOx and particulate matter were connected to a variety of respiratory and cardiovascular ailments, resulting in thousands of additional hospitalizations and deaths, according to their research.
With DEF being mandated by the EPA, you will find most new diesel trucks, SUVs, cars, and machinery are manufactured with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology and a DEF tank that needs to be filled.
When DEF is sprayed into the exhaust stream after combustion, the magic happens, removing the worry of power or torque loss. Once the DEF and hot gases chemically interact, the once-harmful NOx and particulate matter are converted to nitrogen and water, which is then expelled from the exhaust.
While many owners of SCR vehicles have reported greater reliability and longer oil change intervals, it is crucial that the DEF tank does not run dry.
Many engine manufacturers have installed numerous warning lights when the DEF level drops below a certain level, and if the level drops too low, the engine’s performance will decline to keep the speed limited until the tank is full.
A common assumption is that owners need to fill their DEF with each time they fill their fuel tank, however this is false.
The typical rate of DEF usage is 2.5 gallons per 800 miles travelled, depending on how much you’re hauling. DEF has grown more widely available as it has become a requirement in a growing number of automobiles. DEF can be purchased at the pump or in jugs inside of gas stations. It is also strongly advised that you should not attempt to make your own DEF due to the necessity of having the right mixture to avoid damaging your vehicle’s SCR system.
Instead, purchase DEF in portable containers, at the pump, or in bulk quantities to be kept in a refillable bulk DEF tank at truck stops, retail sites, and fleet oil distributors, depending on your needs.
When did DEF become mandatory?
Truck drivers and fleet managers haven’t had to worry about smog-proofing their vehicles for years. In 2008, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) mandated that all three-quarter-ton and bigger vehicles be equipped with diesel particle filters.
The EPA then tightened the rules even more in 2010. The EPA mandated medium- and heavy-duty trucks to take it up a level by using DEF to reduce engine emissions, particularly NOx and particulate matter (PM).
Is DEF required for older diesel engines?
All Final Tier4 engines require diesel exhaust fluid (DEF), thus it’s usual to see it offered at gas stations and dealerships, including RDO Equipment Co. RDO Equipment Co. is committed to ensuring that all employees and customers are informed of how to properly manage and care for DEF.
When did General Motors start utilizing DEF?
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) began introducing laws in 2007 to drastically cut diesel emissions from heavy-duty trucks 1.
By 2013, most heavy-duty diesel pickups were equipped with SCR (Selective Catalyst Reduction) and DEF (Diesel Exhaust Fluid). Some manufacturers, like as GM, started using the technology earlier, with the Duramax receiving it in 2011.
Q1: Where can I find DEF?
A: Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) is widely available at most filling stations and automotive parts retail stores because practically all diesel-powered passenger cars and trucks made since 2010 are fitted with Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) and require it. A DEF pump is frequently located on the fuel island at truck stops. DEF is also available at key OEM outlets, such as Cummins dealers and distributors. Your fuel provider may be able and willing to deliver DEF directly to you if you have a large enough fleet and storage capacity to justify bulk purchasing.
Cummins Filtration has teamed up with Old World Industries to become the official North American manufacturer, packager, and distributor of Fleetguard Diesel Exhaust Fluid.
Q2: What’s the shelf life of DEF?
A: The shelf life of DEF is determined by the temperature of the storage facility. DEF should be stored between 12 and 86 degrees Fahrenheit, however when stored below 65 degrees Fahrenheit, the shelf life is increased to two years. To extend the shelf life of DEF, keep it in a climate-controlled location away from direct sunlight.
Q3: What happens if DEF freezes?
A: While DEF does freeze at 12 degrees F, it has no effect on the vehicle’s start-up or operation. The SCR system heats the DEF tank and pipes when the engine starts up, allowing the DEF to thaw quickly and flow to the aftertreatment system regardless of the outside temperature.
Diesel Exhaust Fluid contains 32.5 percent urea and 67.5 percent deionized water in its formulation. DEF will freeze at 12F in storage or when the engine is not in use (-11C). The urea and the water freeze and thaw at the same pace at this concentration level, guaranteeing that you always have the right amount of each. SCR engines are specifically tuned for optimal performance at this ratio, which is why it’s critical to use a high-quality DEF that complies with ISO standards.
There is one operational difference to be aware of: DEF expands when frozen, just like any other water-based fluid (by approximately 7 percent). When the vehicle is turned off in cold weather, the operator should wait 60 seconds before shutting off the batteries to allow the fluid to flow back out of the hoses and into the DEF tank.
Anti-gelling additives and freeze point improvers should never be introduced to DEF since they will obstruct its capacity to function properly and may cause harm to SCR system components.
Q4: How much DEF will my equipment use?
A: DEF consumption varies based on the environment, the equipment’s operation, and the duty cycle. DEF use accounts for 3-5 percent of total fuel consumption on average.
Because most DEF fill-ups occur at the same time as diesel fuel, it’s a good idea to look at utilization from that standpoint. It’s best to simply top off your DEF tank every time you refuel. Adjust your DEF refills accordingly and consider having a spare bottle of DEF on hand if you’re driving a car that sees very little actual activity or is stored in high ambient temps when shelf life is a problem.
Q5: What happens if my equipment runs out of DEF?
A: Like a fuel gauge, all EPA 2010 engines with SCR are equipped with a gauge that displays the DEF fluid level. Furthermore, they are fitted with a set of flashing lights that warn the operator when the DEF tank is running low on fluid. Vehicle speed will be limited if the DEF reservoir is not replenished and becomes low, however if DEF is injected, the engine will resume regular speed levels. A wise precaution would be to have a top-off gallon jug of DEF on each piece of equipment equipped with an EPA 2010 engine and aftertreatment system.
Engines built before to July 8, 2011 may function differently than those mentioned here. For more information, contact your local Cummins agent and request Cummins Bulletin 4971316, “Driver Tips For Fire And Emergency Vehicles.”
Is there DEF in a 2011 Duramax?
* The 2011 Duramax features urea injection, also known as diesel exhaust fluid by GM (DEF). When the DEF needs to be refilled, bells and flashing lights will sound. When the tank runs out, the truck enters limp mode.
When did the DPF begin?
As a result, the infamous diesel particulate filter (DPF) was added into the exhaust stream in 2007, and diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) was introduced in 2010 to minimize particles and NOx.
When did diesel emissions first appear?
The EPA was working on it as early as 1974, though the broad and hard crush didn’t come until later. It all started in 1997, when the Environmental Protection Agency set the criteria for model years 2004-06.
However, after all of the pain and misery caused by the 2007 emissions regime, which many of you are still dealing with, the 2010-spec heavy-duty diesel has shown to be a significant improvement in terms of both reliability and fuel economy.
Cummins began employing DPF in what year?
This engine used a dual overhead cam configuration until 2010, with one cam controlling the injectors and the other controlling the valve train. HPI (high pressure injection) is an injection system in which the injectors are cam-actuated to provide injection pressure. To feed fuel to the injectors, the fuel system uses an Integrated Fuel System Module (IFSM) with a lift pump, gear pump, pressure regulators, shutoff valve, metering, and timing actuators. It has a one-piece valve cover that is either plastic or chrome plated steel, also known as the Signature 600 or ISX CM570 on previous models.
The ISX CM870 introduced cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in 2002, which recirculates exhaust gas back into the engine’s intake, decreasing combustion chamber temperatures and limiting NOx generation.
Cummins introduced the ISX CM871 engine in 2008, which included a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) to catch particulate matter or “soot” produced in the engine. During a process known as regeneration, the soot trapped in the DPF is oxidized and transformed to ash with the help of the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC). This engine was offered in motorhomes with 600 or 650 horsepower.
Exhaust Gas Recirculation, Diesel Particulate Filter, and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), sometimes known as Urea Injection, are all included in the current EPA 2010 version, known as ISX15 CM2250. SCR is made up of a DEF (urea and water) injection system, which includes a holding tank, pump, controller, and injector, as well as an SCR catalyst brick. DEF is heated, pumped, and fed into a decomposition tube, where it combines with the exhaust and reduces NOX emissions. Due to the introduction of the common rail fuel system, the injector camshaft has been removed from the ISX15 CM2250 and CM2350. The fuel is compressed from a high pressure, multiple piston pump, transmitted through tubing to a rail, and stored under extremely high pressures up to 35,000 psi.
How long has Cummins been utilizing DEF fluid?
The 6.7L Cummins, which debuted in the middle of the 2007 model year, was created to meet stringent Federal pollution standards for diesel engines. Acceptable levels of NOx and particle emissions are maintained through sophisticated tuning and a complex system of components. On 2007 to 2012 model year trucks, an improved exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), and diesel particulate filter (DPF) completed the emissions system. When Ram/Cummins introduced more powerful variants of the 6.7L Cummins in 2013, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) became standard. To further reduce nitrous oxide emissions, the SCR system necessitates the use of diesel exhaust fluid (DEF), a urea-based chemical (NOx).
What is the Duramax’s finest year?
The ’06-’07 Classic body type Duramax trucks are perhaps the most wanted of all Duramax variants. The LBZ Duramax has a lot going for it, with possibly the best plug-and-play horsepower potential (on top of 360 horsepower straight out of the box), the last of the (essentially*) emissions-free engines, and a stronger, six-speed Allison to back them up. These trucks are still quite reliable and have the ride-friendly IFS, as well as the quiet and proven Bosch common-rail injection system. However, most models come with a significant price tag as a result of all of the aforementioned. Expect to pay around $20,000 (or more) for a low-mileage, excellent-condition variant unless you locate a bargain.
* On 2006-2007 trucks (as well as the ‘04.5-‘05.5 LLY), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was employed, but the diesel particulate filter and diesel oxidation catalyst were not yet available.
- For a long time, an Allison automatic won’t be able to manage more than 120 horsepower.
- When off-roading, drag racing, or sled pulling in a 4×4 vehicle, flexing tie rods are a worry.
- There is no factory lift pump.
- These trucks are pushed around by heavy trailers more than Ford or Dodge models.
- Northern regions corrode at a faster rate on rocker panels and cab corners (salt, humidity)
- At greater horsepower levels, cracked piston concerns become apparent.