# Do Wind Turbines Produce A Constant Supply Of Electricity?

A modern wind turbine generates power 70% to 85% of the time, however the production varies depending on the wind speed. It will normally produce about 24% of the theoretical maximum production over the course of a year (41 percent offshore). This is referred to as the capacity factor.

## Why can’t a wind turbine create power 24 hours a day, 7 days a week?

The basic answer is that they produce less electricity when they travel slowly. Under the right conditions, a windmill might produce eight times more power if the wind speed doubles.

The wind turbine will stop producing electricity if there isn’t enough wind or the blades are moving too slowly. At the cut-in speed, the turbine begins to generate electricity. As the wind speed increases, power production increases, but at a slower rate than it does immediately after the cut-in point. The turbine then reaches its maximum rated wind speed, which, in ideal conditions, is between 22 and 36 miles per hour, depending on the type of windmill.

Windmills, too, have a cut-out speed because too much wind can destroy the turbine. The rotation of the windmill is then stopped by a brake.

Windmills are often graded according to the amount of power they would generate in ideal conditions. Because wind conditions vary depending on the season and time of day, the rated power may differ from the actual power produced.

For example, the Cape Wind project, which will have 130 turbines off the coast of Cape Cod, is expected to generate up to 468 megawatts of wind energy. However, because to variable factors such as wind speed and regularity, the average production will only be 170 megawatts. These estimations are based on wind measurements taken prior to the construction of a site so that a wind farm can be designed to capture the maximum amount of energy available. This information is critical for maximizing the use of wind energy on the existing electric system.

The mechanism that generates power is housed behind the blades in the housing. A gear system converts the mechanical movement of the blades into power by increasing the rotating speed of the blades to the high speed required to generate energy.

The power generated by a wind farm is occasionally unavailable due to a lack of consumer demand. A lot of work is being done on electricity storage systems, such as batteries, so that the power generated by this sort of renewable energy may be stored and used when it’s needed.

## A wind turbine generates how much electricity each day?

For thousands of years, people have harnessed the power of the wind. Wind has pushed boats down the Nile River, pumped water and milled grain, and aided food production, among other things. Today, the kinetic energy and strength of natural air movements known as wind are harnessed to generate electricity on a vast scale. A single modern offshore wind turbine can produce more than 8 megawatts (MW), which is enough to power roughly six households for a year. Wind energy is one of the most cost-effective, clean, and widely available energy sources on the world, with onshore wind farms generating hundreds of megawatts.

Wind power is the cheapest large-scale renewable energy source and the most common renewable energy source in the United States today. Nearly 60,000 wind turbines with a total capacity of 105,583 megawatts are installed (MW). That’s enough to supply electricity to almost 32 million homes!

Wind energy solutions enable commercial enterprises meet renewable objectives and standards for dependable, clean energy in addition to playing an important role in our energy supply.

### The Advantages of Wind Energy:

• Wind turbines often pay for their lifetime carbon emissions in less than a year before giving up to 30 years of essentially carbon-free power output.
• Wind energy helps to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, with 201 million metric tons averted in 2018.
• Wind energy installations provide tax money for the towns that host them. Texas, for example, received \$237 million in state and local tax revenue from wind farms.
• The wind sector encourages job development, particularly during the construction phase. In 2018, the industry supported 114,000 jobs in the United States.
• Wind energy is a reliable, additional cash source: each year, wind farms pay over \$1 billion to state and local governments as well as individual landowners.

### What Does a Wind Power Project Look Like?

A wind project, also known as a wind farm, is a collection of wind turbines that are clustered together and act similarly to a power plant, providing electricity to the grid.

The Frontier Windpower I project, which has been operational since 2016, is being expanded by the Frontier Windpower II project in Kay County, Oklahoma. Frontier I and II, when completed, will produce a total of 550 megawatts of wind energy, enough to power 193,000 homes.

## Is it possible for wind turbines to generate power without the presence of wind?

The turbine blades may not spin if there is no wind at all. And we already know that the turbines generate electricity by spinning their blades.

## Why don’t wind turbines work when there’s a lot of wind?

Wind turbines will be spinning on a windy day, providing tons of nice clean energy. The Met Office issued a yellow weather warning for wind in Scotland in the summer of 2016. A few bridges were closed, and ferries were canceled, but it was the day that wind turbines supplied 100% of Scotland’s electricity.

However, when severe weather and high winds strike, turbines must occasionally be turned down. If there is too much energy in the wind, all modern wind turbines are set to immediately stop turning. Some will shut down if the average wind speed exceeds a given threshold for an extended period of time, while others will shut down after a particularly severe gust (something like 100mph).

Strong enough winds to stop the turbines – let alone all of them – are extremely rare in the United Kingdom. Every ten years, high winds affecting 40% or more of the UK’s turbines would occur for around one hour (pdf).

Turbines shut down for safety reasons; if the wind is too strong, it can put a lot of stress on the blades and gears inside the turbine, producing a lot of friction and long-term damage. When the wind is a little slower and safer, it’s far safer to have the turbines stop and then restart.

It’s also quite easy to predict, so the National Grid knows when there will be a lot of wind power generated and when they will have to turn off. As a result, they can readily plan for the change.

On windy days, turbines may also cease whirling if there is too much renewable energy being sent into the National Grid. Instead of many tiny generators feeding into the system, it was originally structured around a few centralised power stations. When it’s too windy and turbines are producing a lot of renewable energy, the grid operators order some wind turbines to shut down to avoid overloading the grid. The true issue is with the grid, which has to be modernized to handle a new smarter energy system. Wind turbines aren’t the problem; they’re just doing their job.

## When it comes to wind turbines, how long do they last?

A modern wind turbine of acceptable quality will typically last 20 years, however this can be extended to 25 years or beyond depending on environmental circumstances and proper maintenance practices. However, as the structure ages, the maintenance expenditures will rise.

## How long does a wind turbine take to pay for itself?

Wind turbines are widely hailed as the solution to long-term electricity generation, especially when combined with high-capacity storage for times when the wind speed is outside of their operating range. They provide a power source with almost no carbon emissions.

In the debates for and against these devices, combined lifecycle cost and environmental assessment in terms of energy use and emissions from production, installation, maintenance, and turbine end-of-life processing appears to be limited. “All forms of energy generation require the conversion of natural resource inputs, which are associated with environmental impacts and costs that must be quantified in order to make appropriate energy system development decisions,” say Oregon State University’s Karl Haapala and Preedanood Prempreeda.

The pair conducted a life cycle assessment (LCA) of 2MW wind turbines to determine the net environmental impact of their manufacture and operation for power generation. An LCA considers the sourcing of essential raw materials (steel, copper, fiberglass, polymers, concrete, and other materials), transportation, production, turbine installation, ongoing maintenance over the turbine’s expected two-decade useful life, and, finally, recycling and disposal at end-of-life.

The great majority of expected environmental impacts, according to their analysis, would be driven by materials production and manufacturing processes. The payback for the accompanying energy use, on the other hand, is only about 6 months, according to the team. Even in the worst-case scenario, each turbine’s lifetime energy requirements are expected to be met during the first year of operation. Thus, each turbine will effectively power over 500 families for the next 19 years without consuming electricity generated from conventional energy sources.

## What is the maximum number of residences that a wind turbine can power per day?

The average American home uses 893 kilowatt-hours (kWh) of power each month, according to the US Energy Information Administration. The average capacity of wind turbines that began commercial operations in 2020 is 2.75 megawatts, according to the US Wind Turbine Database (MW). That average turbine would generate over 843,000 kWh per month at a 42 percent capacity factor (the average among recently built wind turbines in the United States, according to the 2021 edition of the US Department of Energy’s Land-Based Wind Market Report), enough for more than 940 average US homes. To put it another way, the average wind turbine that went online in 2020 provides enough electricity to power a typical U.S. home for a month in just 46 minutes.

## In a year, how much oil does a wind turbine consume?

At the moment, the average wind farm has 150 turbines. Each wind turbine requires 80 gallons of oil for lubrication, and this isn’t vegetable oil; this is a PAO synthetic oil based on crude… 12,000 gallons. Once a year, its oil must be replenished.

To power a city the size of New York, it is estimated that about 3,800 turbines would be required… For just one city, that’s 304,000 gallons of refined oil.

Now you must compute the total annual oil use from “clean” energy in every city across the country, large and small.

Not to add that the huge machinery required to construct these wind farms runs on gasoline. As well as the tools needed for setup, service, maintenance, and eventual removal.

Each turbine has a footprint of 1.5 acres, so a wind farm with 150 turbines would require 225 acres; to power a metropolis the size of NYC, 57,000 acres would be required; and who knows how much land would be required to power the entire United States. Because trees form a barrier and turbulence that interferes with the 20mph sustained wind velocity required for the turbine to work correctly, all of this area would have to be cleared (also keep in mind that not all states are suitable for such sustained winds). Cutting down all those trees is going to irritate a lot of tree-huggers who care about the environment.

A modern, high-quality, highly efficient wind turbine has a 20-year lifespan.

They can’t be reused, reconditioned, reduced, repurposed, or recycled on a budget, so guess what? They’re heading to specialized dumps.

What’s more, guess what else…? They’re already running out of space in these dedicated landfills for blades that have outlived their usefulness. Seriously! The blades range in length from 120 to over 200 feet, and each turbine has three of them. And this is despite the fact that wind energy currently serves only 7% of the country. Imagine if the remaining 93 percent of the country was connected to the wind grid… in 20 years, you’d have all those useless blades with nowhere to put them… Then another 20 years, and another 20 years, and so on.

I almost forgot to mention the 500,000 birds killed each year by wind turbine blade collisions, the most of which are endangered hawks, falcons, owls, geese, ducks, and eagles.

Smaller birds appear to be more agile, able to dart and dodge out of the way of the spinning blades, but larger flying birds appear to be less fortunate.