Why Bldc Motor Is Used In Electric Vehicle?

The majority of Electric Scooters and Electric Motorcycles use brushless DC motors. BLDC motors are used in many two-wheelers, including the Ather 450X, Pure EV Etrance Neo, and Chetak Electric. BLDC motors are also used by numerous three-wheeler manufacturers, including Goenka Electric Motors, Speego Vehicles, and Kinetic Green.

  • The torque-to-weight ratio of BLDC motors is higher, which is significant for electric vehicles since it allows us to make the vehicle lighter while maintaining enough torque.
  • BLDC motors are more reliable than brushless motors since there is less equipment to deal with. As a result, it’s also simple to keep up with.
  • BLDC motors are thought to be more energy efficient than brushed DC motors. Because brushes have less friction, BLDC motors can transfer more electrical power into mechanical power, making them more efficient than brushed motors.
  • BLDC may work without making any mechanical noise due to the lack of friction in the brushes.
  • As a result, the electric car can operate at a lower noise level.
  • BLDC motors do not create sparking, unlike traditional DC motors that need brushes to operate.
  • Brushless motors have this property, which permits them to be used in areas where sparks are dangerous. For example, in flammable gas settings.

Do electric vehicles use BLDC motors?

The brushless direct current (BLDC) motor is a common motor in industry and automobiles. Because of its excellent efficiency, this motor is frequently used in electric vehicles (EVs).

What are the benefits of a brushless DC motor?

A BLDC motor can be built in one of two ways: with the rotor outside the core and the windings within the core, or with the windings outside the core. The rotor magnets act as an insulator in the first arrangement, reducing the rate of heat dissipation from the motor and allowing it to run at low current. It’s commonly found in fans. The motor dissipates more heat in the latter configuration, resulting in an increase in torque. It’s a component of hard disk drives.

The electronic drive for brushless DC motors switches the supply voltage between the stator windings as the rotor rotates. The rotor position is monitored by the transducer (optical or magnetic), which sends data to the electronic controller, and the stator winding to be energized is determined based on this position. This electrical drive is made up of two transistors per phase that are controlled by a microcontroller.

The permanent magnets’ magnetic field interacts with the field caused by the current in the stator windings to produce mechanical torque. The stator’s supply current is switched by an electronic switching circuit or drive to maintain a constant angle of 0 to 90 degrees between the interacting fields. Hall sensors are often installed on the stator or rotor. The rotor generates a high or low signal when it passes through the hall sensor, depending on whether it is at the North or South Pole. The winding to be powered is specified by the combination of these signals. The magnetic field created by the windings should shift position as the rotor travels to catch up with the stator field in order to keep the motor running.

A single hall sensor placed on the stator is employed in a 4 pole, 2 phase brushless dc motor. The hall sensor detects the position of the rotor as it turns and generates a high or low signal depending on the pole of the magnet (North or South). The transistors are connected to the hall sensor via a resistor. When a high voltage signal is received at the sensor’s output, the transistor attached to coil A begins to conduct, allowing current to flow and so igniting coil A. When the capacitor reaches the full supply voltage, it begins to charge. When the hall sensor senses a change in rotor polarity, it generates a low voltage signal at its output, and transistor 1 is cutoff because it does not receive any power. As current runs through coil B, the voltage created around the capacitor is Vcc, which is the supply voltage to the second transistor.

BLDC motors contain fixed permanent magnets that rotate and a fixed armature, which eliminates the need for current to be connected to the moving armature. And the rotor may have more poles than the stator or reluctance motors. The latter may not use permanent magnets at all, instead relying on induced poles on the rotor that are then pushed into alignment by timed stator windings. The brush/commutator assembly of a brushed DC motor is replaced by an electronic controller, which continuously shifts the phase to the windings to keep the motor spinning. Instead of employing a brush/commutator mechanism, the controller uses a solid-state circuit to execute comparable timed power distribution.

  • Improved speed-to-torque characteristics
  • Exceptional dynamic responsiveness
  • Electrical and friction losses are minimized, resulting in a long operational life.
  • Operation with no noise
  • Ranges of higher speeds


Because of advancements in materials and design, the cost of the Brushless DC Motor has decreased since its introduction. The Brushless DC Motor is a common component in a variety of applications due to its lower cost and the several advantages it has over the Brush DC Motor. The BLDC Motor is used in a variety of applications, including but not limited to:

  • Electronics for consumers
  • Heating and air conditioning
  • Engineering in the manufacturing sector
  • Modeling and simulation

The working principles of BLDC motors are the same as those of brushed DC motors, namely, internal shaft position feedback. A mechanical commutator and brushes are used to implement feedback in brushed DC motors. Multiple feedback sensors are used in BLDC motors to achieve this. When the magnetic poles of the rotor pass near the hall sensor, they generate a HIGH or LOW level signal, which can be utilized to identify the position of the shaft in BLDC motors. The voltage created will reverse if the magnetic field’s direction is reversed.

Microelectronic implements the control unit, which includes a number of high-tech options. A microcontroller, a dedicated microcontroller, a hard-wired microelectronic unit, a PLC, or any comparable unit could be used to accomplish this.

Analog controllers are still in use, although they are unable to process and control feedback messages. It is feasible to create high performance control algorithms, such as vector control, field oriented control, and high speed control, using this sort of control circuits, all of which are related to the electromagnetic state of the motor. Outer loop control for a variety of dynamics requirements, such as sliding motor controls, adaptive control, predictive control, and so on, is also done in the traditional way.

Aside from them, high-performance PICs (Power Integrated Circuits), ASICs (Application Specific Integrated Circuits), and other components can substantially simplify the design of both the control and power electronic units. For example, we now have a single IC with a comprehensive PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) regulator that can replace the entire control unit in some systems. In a three-phase converter, a compound driver IC can provide a full solution for driving all six power switches. There are a plethora of identical integrated circuits, with more being added every day. At the end of the day, system assembly may simply require a piece of control software, with all hardware arriving in good working order.

The motor’s speed can be controlled using a PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) pulse. The average voltage or current flowing through the motor will fluctuate depending on the ON and OFF time of the pulses controlling the motor’s speed, i.e. the duty cycle of the wave affects the motor’s speed. We can alter the pace by changing the duty cycle (on time). It will effectively change the direction of the motor by switching output ports.

The ability to control the speed of a BLDC motor is critical for it to operate at the correct rate. Controlling the input dc voltage can control the speed of a brushless dc motor. The higher the voltage, the faster the machine. When the motor is running in normal mode or at a lower speed than the rated speed, the input voltage of the armature is modified using a PWM model. The flux is lessened by advancing the departing current when the motor is driven over rated speed.

Controlling the speed of an open loop

The dc voltage applied to the motor terminals is simply controlled by chopping the dc voltage. However, current limitation occurs as a result of this.

Speed control in a closed loop

It entails using the motor’s speed feedback to regulate the input supply voltage. As a result, the supply voltage is adjusted in response to the error signal.

  • To create the requisite pwm pulses, a PWM circuit is used. A microcontroller or a timer IC can be used.
  • A gadget that detects the real motor speed. A Hall Effect sensor, an infrared sensor, or an optical encoder can all be used.
  • The motor is controlled by a motor drive.

This method of altering the supply voltage based on the error signal can be accomplished using either pid controlling or fuzzy logic.

The motor is controlled by an optocoupler and MOSFET setup, with input DC power controlled by a microcontroller using the pwm approach. Due to the existence of a white spot on the shaft of the motor, the infrared led located at its shaft is lighted with white light when it rotates and reflects the infrared light. When the photodiode receives infrared light, its resistance changes, triggering a change in supply voltage to the attached transistor and a pulse to the microcontroller to generate the number of rotations per minute. On the LCD, this speed is indicated.

The appropriate speed is entered using the Microcontroller’s keypad interface. The error signal is the difference between the sensed and desired speeds, and the microcontroller generates the pwm signal based on the error signal to provide the dc power input to the motor.

The brushless dc motor’s speed may thus be regulated using closed loop control, and it can be made to revolve at any desired speed.

In an electric vehicle, what type of motor is used?

A magnet is either integrated in the rotor or positioned on the rotor’s surface in these sorts of motors. A magnetic field is created, and the vehicle moves as a result of the spin. The speed of the rotating magnetic field is similar to the speed of the rotor in this scenario, which is why it is called a synchronous motor. These are classified as either Interior Permanent Magnet Motors or Surface Permanent Magnet Motors, depending on where the magnets are placed. Due to their ruggedness, high efficiency, power, and relatively simple technology, these are the two most commonly used electric motors in automobiles. Other motors, such as reluctance motors, are utilized in EVs all over the world, including two-wheel, three-wheel, and ELectric Buses, among others.

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What makes a brushless DC motor more efficient?

The amount of output received as a percentage of what was supplied into the system is how efficient a system is characterized.

As a result, when we talk about the energy efficiency of brushless DC (BLDC) motors, we’re referring to the fact that we may get a lot of mechanical power for the electrical power we utilize.

Power loss occurs in all three technologies in the form of I-R losses.

Because DC motors use permanent magnets, no energy is wasted in the formation of an electromagnet, as is the case with AC motors.

In comparison to DC motors, the energy needed by AC motors to build the electromagnet reduces the efficiency of the AC motor.

BLDC motors, on the other hand, are thought to be more energy efficient than brushed DC motors. This indicates that a BLDC motor will convert more electrical power into mechanical power than a brushed motor for the same input power, owing to the lack of brush friction. In the no-load and low-load regions of the motor’s performance curve, the increased efficiency is greatest.

A BLDC motor is frequently smaller than a brushed DC motor and always smaller than an AC induction motor for the same mechanical work output.

Because the BLDC motor’s body has less heat to dissipate, it is smaller.

BLDC motors are better for the environment because they utilize less raw material in their construction.

What is the purpose of a BLDC motor?

Brushless DC motors are primarily used in manufacturing engineering and industrial automation design in industrial engineering. Because of their high power density, good speed-torque characteristics, great efficiency, wide speed ranges, and low maintenance, brushless motors are perfect for manufacturing applications. Motion control, linear actuators, servomotors, actuators for industrial robots, extruder drive motors, and feed drives for CNC machine tools are the most typical applications for brushless DC motors in industrial engineering.

Brushless motors are often utilized as pump, fan, and spindle drives in adjustable or variable speed applications because they have a high torque output and a quick response time. Furthermore, they are simple to automate for remote control. They have strong thermal properties and high energy efficiency due to their construction. Brushless motors use an electromechanical system that includes an electronic motor controller and a rotor position feedback sensor to achieve variable speed response. Brushless DC motors are commonly utilized in machine tool servo drives called servomotors. Mechanical displacement, positioning, and precision motion control are all possible with servomotors. DC stepper motors can also be utilized as servomotors; however, because they are controlled with open loop, torque pulsations are common. Brushless DC motors are better suited to serve as servomotors since their precise motion is based on a closed loop control mechanism that ensures tight control and stability.

What type of motor is utilized in Tesla vehicles?

Isn’t it true that all of this battery power has to go somewhere? This is when the motors enter the picture. Although there are numerous variants on those themes, there are two primary types of electric motors utilized in electric cars. For example, Tesla’s Model S employs alternating current (AC) induction motors, but its Model 3 uses permanent-magnet direct current (DC) motors. Both types of motors have advantages, although induction motors are often less efficient at full load than permanent-magnet motors. In addition, permanent-magnet motors are often smaller and lighter than induction motors. Permanent-magnet motors are frequently considered an upgrade to induction motors, despite the fact that induction motors can deliver incredible performance (the top-performing Model S variations, for example). For a refresher on the distinctions between the two types of electric motors and their internal workings, see the definitions section.

What are the uses of a BLDC motor?

Computer hard drives and DVD players both employ BLDC motors. 04. Fans, washing machines, dryers, pumps, blowers, and compressors all employ these motors.

What makes a brushless motor superior?

1. It is more efficient in terms of energy.

There is no energy lost due to friction because there are no brushes rubbing against anything. Brushless motors are therefore more energy efficient than brushed drills and can run for up to 50% longer on batteries. “Because there are no mechanical limits provided by brushes, that energy efficiency translates into more powerful drills,” says John Banta, a senior test project leader at CR.

2. Improved responsiveness.

Brushless motor drills adapt its speed, torque, and power supply to the work at hand. It will detect whether you’re driving screws into light drywall or dense mahogany, and use only the amount of power necessary to complete the task. (The brushless motor’s efficiency is aided by this battery power conservation.) No matter how much resistance a brushed motor is up against, it will require the same amount of power.

3. Capable of delivering more torque, power, and speed.

Brushless drills provide higher power and torque because there are no brushes to produce friction and slow things down. They can also travel at higher speeds. “When compared to a brushed motor drill, you may expect a 15 to 35 percent boost in performance,” Banta explains.

4. It’s easier to keep up with.

Brushes in a brushed drill need to be replaced after 50 to 60 hours of operation, while brushless drills don’t have any brushes to replace.

5. It’s more compact and lighter.

Brushless motors are also smaller than brushed motors, resulting in a smaller total tool size. Lauren Chell, a Dewalt product manager, provides an example of a brushless model that is 25% more compact than the company’s brushed model. “For a small drill, you may see a weight reduction of one pound and a length reduction of nearly one inch,” Chell explains.

When it comes to using a drill, what does that imply? Banta claims that with the same or superior power, you can go into tighter spots.

6. It lasts longer.

In a brushless drill, there’s no friction, which means less wear and tear and less heat. “Excessive heat is the enemy of both the motor and the battery,” says Wayne Hart, Makita’s communications manager.

A brushless motor can also run up to 50% cooler than a brushed motor.

Because the winding mechanism that generates heat is on the drill’s casing rather than the interior, any heat that does form dissipates faster with a brushless drill. Brushless drills don’t require air vents on their casing for cooling, therefore they’re more resistant to dirt and debris than brushed drills.

What are the benefits and drawbacks of a BLDC motor?

Advantages and disadvantages of brushless DC motors

  • Ranges of faster speeds.
  • It was a successful operation.
  • Dynamic responsiveness is high.
  • Improved speed-to-torque characteristics.
  • Operation that is completely silent.
  • Less electricity maintenance is required.