Distillate fuel oil is a broad term for one of the petroleum fractions produced in traditional distillation processes. Diesel fuels and fuel oils are included. On-highway diesel engines, such as those in trucks and automobiles, as well as off-highway engines, such as those in train locomotives and agricultural machinery, use No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 diesel fuel. Fuel oils with the numbers No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 are largely utilized for space heating and electric power generation.
No. 1 Distillate: A light petroleum distillate that can be used as a diesel fuel or a fuel oil (see No. 1 Diesel Fuel). See No. 1 Fuel Oil for more information.
- No. 1 Diesel Fuel: A light distillate fuel oil that satisfies ASTM Specification D 975 criteria and has distillation temperatures of 550 degrees Fahrenheit at the 90% mark. It’s found in high-performance diesel engines like those seen in city buses and other comparable vehicles. See No. 1Distillate for more information.
- No. 1 Fuel Oil: A light distillate fuel oil that satisfies ASTM Specification D 396 and has distillation temperatures of 400 degrees Fahrenheit at the 10% recovery point and 550 degrees Fahrenheit at the 90% recovery point. It’s mostly used as a fuel source for portable outdoor stoves and warmers. See No. 1Distillate for more information.
No. 2 Distillate: A petroleum distillate that can be used as a diesel fuel or a fuel oil (see No. 2 Diesel Fuel definition). No. 2 Fuel oil is a good example.
- No. 2 Diesel Fuel: A fuel that fulfills the ASTM Specification D 975 criteria and has a distillation temperature of 640 degrees Fahrenheit at the 90% recovery point. It’s found in high-speed diesel engines like those found in locomotives, trucks, and cars. See No. 2Distillate for more information.
- No. 2 fuel oil (heating oil): A distillate fuel oil that meets ASTM Specification D 396 and has distillation temperatures of 400 degrees Fahrenheit at the 10% recovery point and 640 degrees Fahrenheit at the 90% recovery point. It’s utilized in atomizing type burners for home heating or commercial/industrial burner units with a moderate capacity. See No. 2Distillate for more information.
No. 4 Fuel is a distillate fuel oil that is manufactured by combining distillate and residual fuel oil stocks. It meets ASTM Specification D 396 or Federal Specification VV-F-815C and is widely utilized in industrial plants and commercial burner systems that lack preheating capabilities. It also contains No. 4 diesel fuel, which is suitable for low- and medium-speed diesel engines and meets ASTM Specification D 975.
Is fuel oil the same as off-road diesel?
Heating oil and red diesel are not the same thing (off-road fuel). Despite the fact that they are both tax-free and painted red, they contain varying amounts of sulfur. Sulfur content in heating oil is 500 parts per million, while red diesel is less than 15 parts per million. Red diesel can be used to replace heating oil, however heating oil cannot be used to replace red diesel due to its high sulfur level, which is harmful to the environment.
Is #2 fuel oil the same as diesel?
In terms of chemical composition, diesel fuel and #2 fuel oil are nearly identical. The key distinction is in how they are intended to be used. #2 fuel oil is tax-free, which keeps prices low and makes it easier for families to heat their homes. After all, in the cold, this is a need. Instead of cars, it’s used in boilers and furnaces. It even has the same red color as untaxed diesel. Because of its intended usage, this fuel oil is commonly referred to as home heating oil.
For lower viscosity and improved furnace efficiency, #2 fuel oil can be blended with #1 fuel oil. This is also known as the kerosene mix or the home heating oil winter blend by some companies.
Given their similarities, these two types of fuel might theoretically be used interchangeably. However, there are several reasons why this is not commonly done in practice. If your furnace runs out of fuel and deliveries are delayed, you can go to a pump and purchase diesel as an alternative. Because diesel is more expensive than N#2 fuel oil, it’s not practicable for long-term use, although it might be worth it in an emergency.
Putting #2 fuel oil in a diesel vehicle is never a good idea. It’s against the law due to tax rules. If you’re pulled over and the cops notice you’re using red-dyed gas, you could face charges. Follow the law and only use each product for its authorized use.
Is heating oil the same as red diesel?
The term “heating oil” refers to the fuel used in central heating systems. Gas oil (sometimes called red diesel or 35-second oil) is mostly used in commercial and agricultural applications. Kerosene (also known as 28-second oil or home heating oil) is a lighter oil that is utilized in many households.
Is Number 1 diesel the same as kerosene?
If you go about on the internet, you can come across a forum question like this:
In most cases, the responses are mixed. ‘Don’t worry, you’ll be OK,’ said half of the people. “Watch out for ________,” the other half will warn.
Regular diesel is referred to as #2 diesel fuel oil, whereas kerosene is referred to as #1 diesel fuel oil. Some people believe it is similar enough to conventional (#2) diesel fuel that they may try to use it interchangeably. What would motivate them to do so, and what problems may they face?
What Makes Kerosene What It Is
The qualities of kerosene determine what happens when it is burned. Because kerosene is a lighter diesel oil than #2, it is referred to as #1 diesel. Because of its smaller weight, it has somewhat less energy roughly 135,000 BTU per gallon vs. 139,000 BTU for #2.
Aromatic compounds are often concentrated in #2 and heavier diesel fuel oils; kerosene does not have extremely significant levels of them. This is one of the reasons why #2 diesel burns drier and with less lubricity than kerosene.
The most prevalent worry is kerosene’s dry burn, which can harm gasoline pumps. In comparison to #2 diesel, kerosene has extremely little lubricity. When running on kerosene, gasoline pumps without lubricity suffer a lot of wear and may burn out. Additional wearable pieces, such as rings, gaskets, and valves, are mentioned by some. Adding some automatic transmission fluid to the kerosene is a simple cure for this. In this case, 2-cycle oil can also be used.
Some will argue that kerosene burns hotter than #2 diesel, resulting in worries about rings being burned out. Others argue that because kerosene has a lower energy value, it will not burn at a higher temperature.
The fact that kerosene has less total energy than #2 is undeniable. However, having less total energy simply means that a gallon of kerosene produces less total heat than a gallon of standard on-road diesel.
Kerosene has a lower viscosity than gasoline, which allows it to burn at a higher temperature in an engine.
Cutting Diesel with Kerosene
Kerosene can be combined with diesel fuel for a few advantages. Kerosene is particularly beneficial in the winter for modifying the cold weather handling temperatures of diesel fuel. The rule of thumb is that adding ten percent kerosene to a diesel fuel blend lowers the cold filter plugging point by five degrees. It may be more cost effective to use kerosene as a mixer than than a cold flow polymer in extremely cold climates.
To reduce emissions, kerosene and #2 are mixed together. According to the theory, kerosene “burns cleaner” than #2, resulting in lesser pollutants.
What’s the difference between #1 and #2 diesel?
The fundamental difference between Diesel #1 and Diesel #2 is the cetane rating, which, like the octane of gasoline, indicates igniting ease. It’s all about fuel efficiency, volatility, and seasonality, really.
Less wear on your engines’ batteries implies a faster and more efficient start. The increased cetane grade also helps diesel engines run more smoothly by lowering maintenance requirements.
The additional lubricants in Premium Diesel assist keep fuel system parts moving easily. The fuel pump’s and other fuel system components’ lives are extended as a result of the reduced friction.
Fuel systems can become clogged with sediments and other particles over time. While the engine is operating, detergents are injected to Diesel #1 to clean injectors and other fuel system components. Not only does a clean fuel system last longer, but it also enhances fuel efficiency and horsepower production.
Diesel #1 contains lubricants and detergents, as well as other fuel additives that improve engine performance and save downtime. Even in a well-sealed fuel system, air moisture can find its way in and cause major engine problems. Demulsifiers in premium Diesel work to separate emulsified water from the fuel so that it can be filtered out; even in a well-sealed fuel system, air moisture can find its way in and cause major engine problems. Corrosion inhibitors keep rust and corrosion at bay, while stabilizers keep blockages and buildup at bay.
Diesel #1 is sometimes known as winter diesel since it operates better in colder conditions than Diesel #2. It has a lower viscosity and does not gel when exposed to cold temperatures. Most stations sell a premium Diesel blend that is tailored to the local climate.
While premium diesel has a number of advantages, such as fewer maintenance and equipment downtime, regular diesel is less expensive at the pump, which is an essential consideration. However, total cost of ownership should take into account not only the cost savings from the fuel, but also the impact on ongoing maintenance costs. The age and size of your fleet may play a role in deciding between Diesel #1 and Diesel #2.
When deciding between Diesel #1 and Diesel #2 for your fleet, keep in mind that premium Diesel quality differs from station to station. If you choose Diesel #1, make sure your drivers get their fuel at reliable high-volume stations.
Do you want to learn more about the effects of diesel choices on fuel systems? To talk with an equipment professional, contact your nearest Papé Kenworth office now.
Can you mix off-road diesel with regular diesel?
No, your truck will be alright on this diesel. The main variation is in color, not in the components. It’s strictly for off-road use, as indicated by the red colour. It’s coloured red to make it visible to government officers if you’re using it illegally. Be aware that if you’re discovered driving on US highways, you could face a ticket and a hefty fine.
Off-road diesel will run your automobile if it runs on diesel. However, as previously said, if you use it illegally and are detected, you will be penalized by both the state and federal governments. Because that is sometimes the only fuel available in the event of a natural disaster, you are unlikely to be penalized.
Technically, you can, because the color is the only difference. We’ve heard of cases where someone bought a truck that ran on off-road diesel and then switched to regular diesel. In that situation, the new owner just switched to regular diesel and the vehicle performed admirably.
The distinguishing red dye is the most noticeable variation, and there may also be a difference in sulfur levels. Furthermore, because this agricultural fuel is designed for heavy machinery, it heats up quickly.
Driving until the tank is completely empty is the simplest way to get rid of the red dye. Then pour in a couple gallons of or normal diesel and let it run for a while. Repeat this process numerous times. If you want to be sure it’s gone, have your repair flush the gasoline system.
No, it isn’t possible. Except for the colour, it’s identical as on-road diesel. If you have a diesel engine, you can use farm fuel to power it. Just make sure you’re not breaking any laws when you use it.
Some people believe it is “tax-free,” but depending on the state, it may or may not be. Here’s a list of states with information on gasoline tax exemptions. When you’re permitted to use this type of fuel off-road, you’ll either pay less at the pump or get a refund on your fuel tax.
You could be charged with “Motor Fuel Tax Evasion” if you’re caught and convicted. Is it really worth it to save money on gas? Here’s what the IRS has to say about it:
“What are the Consequences?” In general, no coloured fuel should be used in highway vehicles. The Internal Revenue Code stipulates a penalty of $1,000 or $10 per gallon, whichever is larger, with payment of the tax for each violation. Additional fines may be imposed by states.”
Mixing the two types of diesel fuels is not a problem, however red diesel has a higher sulfur level than green. It’s also known as green fuel because it’s environmentally beneficial. It’s either light green or transparent in appearance.
This is subject to change. If you’re unsure, you can dip a tube in your tank and pull out a sample to see what color it is; there are also manual dipstick kits and black lights available. However, the gas does not remain in your tank; it passes through your fuel system. If you’re worried, take it to your mechanic to have the system flushed.
What is the difference between #1 and #2 fuel oil?
The list below is arranged in order of lightest to heaviest oil. Some of these fuel oils may be familiar to you, while others are only used in specific situations:
The lightest fuel oil on this list is kerosene, which is the first of the distillates. It’s made by refining and purifying No. 1 fuel oil till it’s cleaner and purer. It is less viscous and has a lower boiling point than any of the following fuel oils because it is one of the lightest oils. Kerosene heaters are frequently used by anyone who require portable heat, especially if they are working indoors on new construction. Because kerosene is one of the cleaner-burning fuels, it’s quite safe to use indoors.
When the electricity goes out, one of the most popular ways individuals use kerosene is to fuel kerosene lamps for emergency lighting. Kerosene lamps are also attractive to some people. Regardless, “lamp oil” is frequently offered at high costs in stores and has additions like scents and odor eliminators to make it more pleasant to burn.
No. 1 Fuel Oil
No. 1 fuel oil is similar to kerosene but thicker. This means it has a greater boiling point, is less refined, and has a higher viscosity. It has a lighter consistency than No. 2 fuel oil. As a result, as compared to No. 2 fuel oil, it generates fewer British thermal units (Btu). The fraction of oil that boils out during the petroleum distillation process just before the manufacture of gasoline is known as No. 1 fuel oil.
Outdoor stoves and portable heaters use No. 1 fuel oil as a source of energy. Because of its heavier nature, it’s recommended to limit the usage of No. 1 fuel oil for heating to the outdoors. It emits additional contaminants into the air as it burns, which can be unhealthy to breathe over time.
This fuel oil is well-known, as it can be found at many gas stations across the Northeast and the United States. It’s similar to No. 2 fuel oil, but it’s used for a variety of reasons. Diesel fuel is provided in two varieties:
- Diesel fuel that hasn’t been taxed: This type of diesel hasn’t had any government taxes added to it. Companies dye it red to distinguish it from taxed diesel fuel, making it easily recognizable as tax-free. Because it has a reduced sulfur level, people utilize untaxed diesel fuel to power off-road vehicles like construction machinery. In certain circumstances, untaxed diesel fuel is a preferable choice for the environment. It is prohibited to use untaxed diesel in situations where taxed diesel is required.
- Taxed diesel fuel is transparent with a faint greenish tint and is undyed. Taxes are included in the price of this type of diesel at the pump. When going on public highways, people utilize taxed diesel in their diesel-powered vehicles. Off-road vehicles can run on taxed diesel, but you’ll pay a higher premium for the privilege.
Some individuals are concerned that the dye in untaxed diesel may diminish its efficiency and cause pollution. During combustion, however, the dye burns alongside the fuel with no signs of diminished efficiency or pollution. In an off-road vehicle, remember to use only untaxed diesel fuel. Police will occasionally check for taxable diesel fuel in road cars, and if you use untaxed fuel improperly, you could face significant fines and possibly jail time.
The “diesel fuel winter blend” is a different sort of diesel. Regular diesel fuel is mixed with a modest amount of No. 1 fuel oil in this mixture. The goal is to reduce sludge and gel, which can be a problem with ordinary diesel during the winter. The winter diesel fuel blend can survive the cold weather’s detrimental effects.
No. 2 Fuel Oil
Number two Although fuel oil and diesel fuel are essentially identical, they are used for distinct purposes. More than a difference in chemical makeup, the different names reflect the fuels’ different purposes.
Because No. 2 fuel oil is not taxed, it has the same red-dyed appearance as untaxed diesel fuel. Because consumers use it to heat their houses with boilers or furnaces, No. 2 fuel oil is tax-free. To distinguish No. 2 oil from diesel fuel, many people call it “home heating oil” or “normal fuel oil.”
No. 2 fuel oil, like diesel fuel, comes in a winterized form known as “home heating oil winter mix.” This blend blends No. 2 and No. 1 heating oils to make it less viscous and easier to use in your furnace or boiler. To underline its cleaner-burning and less viscous features, some businesses term this product “kerosene blend.”
No. 3 Fuel Oil
Because of its low viscosity, No. 3 fuel oil was originally a popular choice for burners. This changed when ASTM International merged No. 3 and No. 2 fuel oils to phase out No. 3 fuel oil. No. 3 fuel oil is no longer often used or mentioned. Its effect has been assimilated into the No. 2 fuel oil specification since the mid-1900s.
No. 4 Fuel Oil
The transition fuel that separates the distillate oils from the residual oils is No. 4 fuel oil. No. 4 fuel oil is made by blending a distillate, such as No. 2 fuel oil, with the remaining No. 5 fuel oil. Power plants, stationary engines, and commercial heating boilers without preheaters are the most common applications. “Bunker oil,” “diesel distillate,” “residual fuel oil,” or “heavy distillate” are all terms used to describe this oil. It emits pollutants like as sulfur and nickel when burned.
No. 5 Fuel Oil
People make No. 5 fuel oil by combining a distillate oil with a residual oil, much like they do with No. 4 fuel oil. It is used in identical situations as No. 4 fuel oil, with the exception that it must be prepared in order to atomize properly and combust. Its viscosity can be reduced by mixing it with No. 2 fuel oil, allowing it to be pumped without the requirement for preheating. Fuel oil No. 5 is also known as “Navy special” or “furnace fuel oil.”
No. 6 Fuel Oil
After the following fuels have been distilled or boiled off, No. 6 fuel oil is what’s left in the petroleum distillation process. Pavers make asphalt from No. 6 fuel oil, which is used to pave roads and driveways. This fuel is also used in commercial generators and heavy-duty engines to generate energy. It, like No. 4 fuel oil, can leave pollutants such as nickel and sulfur behind when used in commercial boilers for heating buildings.
What is Number 1 and Number 2 fuel oil?
A portion obtained from petroleum distillation, either as a distillate or as a residue, is known as fuel oil. Fuel oil, in general, is any liquid petroleum product that is burned in a furnace or boiler to generate heat or utilized in an engine to generate power, with the exception of oils with a flash point of around 40 °C (104 °F) and oils burned in cotton or wool-wick burners. Diesel is a sort of fuel oil in this sense. Long hydrocarbon chains, mainly alkanes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics, make up fuel oil. Fuel oil is also used in a tighter meaning to refer only to the heaviest commercial fuel derived from crude oil, which is heavier than gasoline and naphtha.
According to its boiling point, content, and use, fuel oil is divided into six classes, numbered 1 through 6. The fuel’s boiling point, which ranges from 175 to 600 °C, and carbon chain length, which ranges from 20 to 70 atoms, rise as the number of fuel oil molecules grows. The viscosity of the oil increases as the number increases, and the heaviest oil must be heated to flow. As the number of fuels grows, the price usually lowers.
Distillate fuel oils, diesel fuel oils, light fuel oils, gasoil, and simply distillate are some of the terms used to describe No. 1 fuel oil, No. 2 fuel oil, and No. 3 fuel oil. No. 2 fuel oil, No. 2 distillate, and No. 2 diesel fuel oil, for example, are nearly identical (diesel is different in that it also has a cetane number limit which describes the ignition quality of the fuel). Crude oil is distilled into distillate fuel oils.
Distillation is referred to as “gas oil.” The oil is heated until it turns into a gas, then it condenses. It distinguishes between distillates and residual oil. The No. 1 fraction, which is identical to kerosene and boils off right after gasoline, is similar to kerosene. No. 2 is the diesel used by trucks and some cars, hence the term “road diesel.” It’s exactly the same as heating oil. No. 3 is a distillate fuel oil that is used infrequently. No. 4 fuel oil is usually a mixture of distillate and residual fuel oils like No. 2 and 6, however it can also be only a heavy distillate. Diesel, distillate, or residual fuel oil are all possible classifications for No. 4. The fuel oils No. 5 and No. 6 are known as residual fuel oils or heavy fuel oils. Because No. 6 is generated in significantly greater quantities than No. 5, the words heavy fuel oil and residual fuel oil are frequently used interchangeably. They are the leftovers from the distillation of crude oil to generate gasoline and distillate fuel oils. No. 5 fuel oil is made up of a 75-80% combination of No. 6 and No. 2. To satisfy standards, No. 6 may additionally contain a minor amount of No. 2.
When residual fuel oils are mixed with distillate fuel oil, they are sometimes referred to as light, whereas when distillate fuel oils are mixed with residual fuel oil, they are referred to as heavy. For example, heavy gas oil is a distillate that contains residual fuel oil. The success of catalytic cracking of gasoline to release more valuable fractions and leave heavy residue is often responsible for the readily available very heavy grades of fuel oil.
Oil is used to heat homes and businesses, as well as to power trucks, ships, and some automobiles. Diesel produces a tiny quantity of electricity, but it is more polluting and costlier than natural gas. It’s frequently utilized as a backup fuel for peaking power plants in the event that natural gas supplies are disrupted, or as the primary fuel for tiny electrical generators. In Europe, diesel is mostly used in automobiles (about 40%), SUVs (nearly 90%), and trucks. Due to the extensive use of natural gas, the market for home heating using fuel oil, also known as heating oil, has shrunk. However, in other locations, such as the Northeastern United States, it is fairly frequent.
What is No 1 fuel?
Although the following patterns are typically true, numerical requirements for the six gasoline classes may vary depending on the organization. Fuel oil number raises the boiling point and carbon chain length of the fuel. The viscosity of the oil increases as the number increases, and the heaviest oil must be heated to flow. As the number of fuels grows, the price usually lowers.
Number 1 fuel oil is a volatile distillate oil used to vaporize pot-type burners and high-performance/clean diesel engines. It is also known as diesel no. 1, kerosene, and jet fuel. The kerosene refinery cut is the one that boils off right after the heavy naphtha cut used for gasoline. Coal oil, stove oil, and range oil were some of its previous titles.
A distillate home heating oil is the number two fuel oil. Trucks and some cars utilize diesel no. 2 with a cetane number limit, which describes the fuel’s ignition quality. The light gas oil cut is often used to obtain both. The name gasoil comes from its original application in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, when the gas oil cut was employed as an enriching ingredient in carbureted water gas production.
A distillate oil was used as the third fuel oil for burners that needed a low-viscosity fuel. Since the mid-twentieth century, ASTM has combined this grade into the number 2 specification, and the word has been rarely used.
Bunker A, often known as Number 4 fuel oil, is a commercial heating oil for burners that do not have preheaters. It’s possible to get it from the heavy gas oil cut.
Number 5 fuel oil is a residual-type industrial heating oil that must be preheated to between 77 and 104 degrees Celsius (171 and 219 degrees Fahrenheit) for optimal atomization at the burners. Bunker B is another name for this fuel. It can be made from the heavy gas oil cut, or it can be made from a mixture of residual oil and enough number 2 oil to alter viscosity so that it can be pumped without preheating.
Number 6 fuel oil is a high-viscosity residual oil that must be preheated to temperatures between 104 and 127 degrees Celsius (219 and 261 degrees Fahrenheit). The stuff left over after the more valuable crude oil cuts have been boiled out is referred to as residual. Various unwanted contaminants, such as 2% water and 0.5 percent mineral oil, may be present in the residue. Residual fuel oil (RFO), Navy specification Bunker C, or Pacific Specification PS-400 are all names for this fuel.