Not that diesel can’t be used, but the gauges occasionally leak, and diesel produces a stinky mess under the dash to clean up. Hydraulic hose will suffice, and the size should not be an issue as long as it is not excessively large.
What is the best material for diesel fuel lines?
The fact that gasoline and diesel control samples in our aging and corrosion investigations never really age is something we’ve noticed at PS for a long time. Gum and discoloration are only produced when metal samples are included in the samples. Refinery stability treatments are one cause, but the fundamental difference is that copper and zinc ions are powerful polymerization catalysts. Because copper tubing, brass fittings, and galvanized piping are prohibited by code, this type of failure does not occur in shore-side fuel storage systems. The following requirements have been cited by standards organizations and OEMs.
ASTM D975 Appendix X2.7.2
Copper and copper-based alloys should be avoided at all costs. Copper can cause mercaptide gels and increase fuel deterioration. Zinc coatings can create gels when exposed to water or organic acids, clogging filters quickly.
Copper and zinc exposure, ahead of water and soil, are the most detrimental variables in long-term storage, according to British Petroleum. BP claims that:
- There is water present. Fungus and bacteria thrive in water, producing natural by-products such as organic acids, which make the fuel unstable.
- Dust and grime can contain trace elements like copper and zinc, which can destabilize the fuel.
We looked at diesel standby generator installation requirements. The gasoline will sit there for months, just like boats that are stored seasonally. We discovered that copper tubing and brass fittings were universally condemned:
Diesel fuel lines are best served by black iron pipe. Valve and fittings made of steel or cast iron are chosen.
CAUTION: Copper and zinc should not be utilized with diesel fuels, either as plating or as a substantial alloying component. In the presence of sulfur, zinc becomes unstable, especially if moisture is present in the fuel. Chemical action produces a sludge that is particularly detrimental to the engine’s interior components.
Piping for Diesel Fuel. Black iron pipe should be used to make diesel fuel lines. Because cast iron and aluminum pipe and fittings are porous and can leak gasoline, they should not be utilized. Galvanized gasoline lines, fittings, and tanks must not be utilized because the galvanized coating will be attacked by the sulfuric acid formed when the sulfur in the fuel reacts with the condensate in the tank, resulting in debris that can clog fuel pumps and filters.
Copper lines should not be used because fuel polymerizes (thickens) in copper tubing after extended periods of inactivity, clogging fuel injectors. Copper lines are also less durable than black iron, making them more vulnerable to damage.
Use galvanized or copper gasoline lines, fittings, or tanks at all times. Sulfuric acid is formed when condensation in the tank and lines reacts with the sulfur in the diesel fuel. The copper or galvanized lines or tanks’ molecular structure reacts with the acid, contaminating the fuel.
US Army CERDEC study, 1977
In the past, major field concerns have resulted from galvanized storage tanks, pipes, and terne-coated vehicle tanks. Zinc has a tendency to build up in spray holes, causing nozzle coking. Fuel acids attack lead (a component of terne plating) and cause soap precipitates. Copper has the potential to catalyze the oxidation of fuels and induce solids deposition. Nonferrous metals and alloys should be avoided in fuel pipes and storage tanks, as well as throughout the complete vehicle fuel system.
When exposed to biodiesel or bugs, ni-terne, which is used to cover the inside of the tank, can peel.
US Department of energy
Certain metals may have an effect on biodiesel by speeding up the oxidation process and resulting in the formation of fuel insolubles. In both B100 and B20, lead, tin, brass, bronze, and zinc considerably increase sediment formation. At any blend level, galvanized metal and terne-coated sheet metal are incompatible with biodiesel.
Should we replace copper and brass with flexible hose, steel, and aluminum in the fuel system? Let’s not rush into things. Metal deactivators in PS suggested additions sequester the problematic ions, rendering them harmless. You are safe if you follow a regular therapy schedule. However, while installing new equipment, think about the materials you use.
Is fuel hose OK for diesel?
Fuel line is a petroleum-resistant nitrile tube with a weather-resistant, ozone-resistant, and heat-resistant covering that can be utilized for ethanol-laced fuels as well as diesel fuel. It should not, however, be utilized on systems that produce pressures more than 50 psi, such as coolant systems, oil systems, or fuel-injection systems.
Will silicone hose hold up to diesel fuel?
Can your silicone hoses be used for fuel? This is a question we are asked a lot. The short answer is no; typical silicone hoses are porous and so unsuitable for use with oil or fuel. We do have a range of fluorolined silicone hoses that are made for the specific goal of keeping fuel and oil from penetrating the hose’s wall, but we would not recommend them for fuel lines or heavy fuel filling. It’s fine to use fuel and vapour on occasion, but we recommend using rubber if you’re going to be in continuous touch with it.
Is vinyl tubing OK for diesel fuel?
For anything between the tank and the IP, only use fuel-rated tubing. For return lines, Tygon hose is good, and you might even get away with using vinyl hose briefly for testing purposes.
Will hydraulic hose work for antifreeze?
Low-pressure hydraulic hoses can sustain pressures of up to 300 pounds per square inch. The most common type of reinforcement is cloth. They transport petroleum-based fluids, diesel fuel, heated lubricating oil, air, glycol antifreeze, and water in low-pressure hydraulic applications. Global MegaVac (GMV), for example, is rated for suction applications.
Specialty hydraulic hoses don’t always fit neatly into a pressure category. Specialty hose, for example, could be used with ecologically friendly hydraulic fluids, for operating at extremely high or low temperatures, or for applications that need electrical nonconductivity. When weight is an issue or large continuous lengths are necessary, they might be provided. Nonmetallic reinforcement is typically a rubber-impregnated fabric.
Minimum requirements for construction, dimensions, and performance have long been established by SAE in North America to offer a measure of uniformity to hydraulic-hose manufacture.
Organizations such as the European Norm/Standard (EN), Deutsche Industrie Norm (DIN), and the International Standards Organization (ISO) set standards in other regions of the world that may differ from those set by SAE. Standards are also set by government agencies. The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) and the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards of the Department of Transportation are two among them.
The 100R hose series, which are the most popular hoses used in hydraulic systems, are covered by SAE Standard J517, which includes general, dimensional, and performance specifications. For more information, see the “SAE hose structures” sidebar.
Exceeding SAE specifications
Some manufacturers have created hoses that considerably exceed SAE specifications in terms of performance and construction. Higher pressure and temperature capabilities, more flexibility, and a bend radius as small as one-half that of the SAE standard are all advantages to consumers.
Gates M-XP hydraulic hose is one such product, as it combines the flexibility of wire-braid construction with the strength and performance of spiral-wire reinforcement. The result is a two-braid wire hose that can perform 4000-psi high-impulse duty in all sizes at a low cost.
The M-XP hose is rated for 1,000,000 impulse cycles (at 100°C), which is higher than the SAE norm of 200,000 and the Gates minimum requirement of 600,000 for conventional wire-braid hoses. The hose’s high cycle rating means it’ll last longer in out-of-sight and hard-to-reach applications like mobile and construction equipment’s boom arms and scissor lifts.
In addition, the hose has half the minimum bend radius of comparable SAE-rated tubing. This means it can withstand more extreme bends without sacrificing performance or life. This can cut the length of hose required by nearly half in some situations. It’s also easier to install in tight locations with more flexibility.
Another benefit is that M-XP hose can employ less expensive, one-piece MegaCrimp couplings that are likewise rated for 1,000,000 impulse test cycles instead of expensive spiral-wire couplings. MSHA flame-resistance standards are met by the assemblies.
The SAE J517 specifications are summarized here. Unless otherwise specified, each hose features an oil-resistant synthetic rubber inner tube that is compatible with both petroleum and water-based hydraulic fluids, an oil and weather-resistant synthetic rubber cover, and a temperature range of 40 to 100°C.
One braid of high-tensile-strength wire is wrapped around an oil-resistant tube (usually nitrile) and an oil, weather, UV, and ozone-resistant cover is usually constructed of NBR or NBR/PVC blend. Type AT is constructed similarly to Type A, with the exception that the cover does not need to be removed in order to assemble with fittings. Type S has the same structure as Type AT and operates at ISO 436-1, Type 1SN operating pressures.
Steel-wire reinforcement is found in two braids on SAE 100R2 hose. To anchor the rubber to the wire, a ply or braid of suitable material can be applied over the inner tube and/or wire reinforcement. To assemble with fittings, Type A needs skiving (removing) a part of the cover. Type AT is constructed similarly to Type A, with the exception that the cover does not need to be removed in order to assemble with fittings. Type S has the same construction as Type AT and operates at ISO 1436-1, Type 2SN operating pressures.
SAE 100R3 hose features two textile yarn strands. It’s typically utilized with petroleum lubricants, antifreeze, or water in low-pressure applications.
One or more plies of woven or braided textile fibers with a spiral of body wire make up SAE 100R4 hose. It’s commonly used for suction and return lines.
Two textile braids are separated by a high-tensile-strength steel-wire braid in SAE 100R5 hose. The braids are all treated with a synthetic rubber composition that is grease and mildew resistant.
One braided or spiral ply of textile yarn is included in SAE 100R6 hose. It’s for low-pressure, general-purpose applications.
At temperatures ranging from 40 to 93°C, SAE 100R7 thermoplastic hose should be utilized with synthetic, petroleum, and water-based hydraulic fluids. It comprises of a hydraulic fluid and weather-resistant thermoplastic inner tube reinforced with synthetic fibers and a hydraulic fluid and weather-resistant thermoplastic cover. An orange cover and proper layline distinguish nonconductive 100R7. The pressure capacity is comparable to 100R1.
Within a temperature range of 40 to 93°C, SAE 100R8 high-pressure thermoplastic hose should be utilized with synthetic, petroleum, and water-based hydraulic fluids. It has a hydraulic fluid and weather-resistant thermoplastic cover, as well as a thermoplastic inner tube that is resistant to hydraulic fluids. An orange cover and proper layline distinguish nonconductive 100R8. The pressure capacity is comparable to 100R2.
The hose types SAE 100R9, SAE 100R10, and SAE 100R11 have been delisted from the SAE standard.
Within a temperature range of 40 to 121°C, SAE 100R12 hose should be used with petroleum and water-based hydraulic fluids. It is made up of four spiral plies of strong wire coiled in different directions. To anchor the synthetic rubber to the wire, a ply or braid of suitable material can be applied over the inner tube and/or over the wire reinforcement.
The SAE 100R13 hose is designed to handle petroleum and water-based hydraulic fluids at temperatures ranging from 40 to 121°C. The inner tube is covered with many spiral plies of strong wire coiled in alternate directions. It’s designed for high-pressure situations that may experience surges or flexing.
SAE 100R14 hose is designed to work with petroleum, synthetic, and water-based hydraulic fluids at temperatures ranging from 54 to 204°C. Type A has a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) inner tube reinforced with a single stainless steel braid. Type B is constructed similarly to Type A, but with the addition of an electrically conductive inner surface to prevent electrostatic charge buildup.
Only petroleum-based hydraulic fluids in the temperature range of 40 to 121°C should be used with SAE 100R15 hose. It’s made up of several spiral plies of strong wire coiled in different directions. To anchor the rubber to the wire, a ply or braid of suitable material might be employed over or within the inner tube and/or over the wire reinforcement.
Steel-wire reinforcing is present in one or both strands of SAE 100R16 hose. It’s designed for high-pressure hydraulic applications that necessitate tight bends and a lot of flexibility.
The constant operating pressure rating of SAE 100R17 hose with one or two braids of steel-wire reinforcement is 3,000 psi.
In the temperature range of 40 to 93°C, SAE 100R18 thermoplastic hose should be utilized for synthetic, petroleum, and water-based hydraulic fluids. It has a hydraulic fluid and weather-resistant thermoplastic cover, a thermoplastic inner tube that resists hydraulic fluids, synthetic-fiber reinforcement, and a hydraulic fluid and weather-resistant thermoplastic inner tube. An orange cover and proper layline distinguish nonconductive 100R18. All sizes have a working pressure rating of 3,000 psi.
All sizes of SAE 100R19 hose have a continuous operating pressure rating of 4000 psi. Steel-wire reinforcing is present in one or two strands. To anchor the rubber to the wire, a ply or braid of suitable material can be applied over the inner tube and/or wire reinforcement.
Can hydraulic hose be used for engine oil?
It’s an understatement to say that hose is a key component of a hydraulic system. Hose’s flexibility allows components to be placed in the most efficient or convenient locations because it can bend around corners, into small areas, or across long distances.
However, there appear to be as many distinct varieties of hose as there are different sorts of telephone long-distance carriers these days. What distinguishes one from the other for a designer? Isn’t there a simple way to compare and choose hoses?
The SAE standards
SAE’s J517 hydraulic hose standard provides answers to these questions. Today, this hose standard is the most widely used benchmark in the field of industrial hydraulics. J517 refers to a set of guidelines that apply to the current SAE 100R series of hoses. There are now 16 different hose styles available, labeled 100R1 through 100R16 (see descriptions, pages A105 and 106). Each style must meet a set of dimensional and performance requirements established by SAE. However, SAE does not give approval source lists, certification, or letters of approval; manufacturers’ compliance with these criteria is completely voluntary. In other words, the standards simply ensure that products from different producers are equivalent.
Hydraulic hose construction
A modern hydraulic hose is made up of at least three layers: a fluid-carrying inner tube, a reinforcing layer, and a protective outer layer.
The inner tube needs to be flexible and compatible with the type of fluid it will transport. Synthetic rubber, thermoplastics, and PTFE (also known as Teflon) are all common compounds. One or more braided wire, spiral-wound wire, or textile yarn sheaths make up the reinforcement layer. Depending on the sort of environment the hose is designed for, the outer layer is generally weather-, oil-, or abrasion-resistant.
Hydraulic hoses, predictably, have a limited lifespan. While proper hose sizing and usage of the suitable type of hose will surely improve the life of a hose assembly, there are a number of other considerations to consider. Some of the most serious violations, according to SAE, are:
- subjecting the hose to transitory or rapid pressure rises (surges) exceeding the maximum operational pressure, and
- intermixing hose, fittings, or assembly equipment that the manufacturer has not indicated as compatible, or not building hose assemblies according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
Selecting the proper hose
During the hose and coupler selection procedure, the system designer should follow these seven phases. Use the acronym STAMPED to assist you choose the right hose for the job: Size, Temperature, Application, Materials, Pressure, Ends, and Delivery. Here are some things to think about in each category:
Size – To determine the correct hose size for replacement, use a precision-engineered caliper to precisely measure the inside and outer hose diameters, as well as the length of the hose. Hose OD is especially significant when using hose-support clamps or routing hoses through bulkheads. In suppliers’ catalogs, look for ODs in individual hose specification tables. Always cut the new hose to the same length as the one being replaced when changing a hose assembly. Moving parts of the machine can pinch or even sever a hose that is excessively lengthy. If the replacement hose is too short, the hose may shrink and strain, resulting in a shorter service life.
While hydraulic mechanisms are in action, changes in hose length vary from +2% to 4% when pressurized. Make the hose lengths somewhat longer than the actual distance between the two connectors to allow for probable hose shortening during operation.
Temperature – Depending on the fluid temperature, all hoses have a maximum operating temperature of 200° to 300° F. Hoses can lose their flexibility if they are exposed to high temperatures for an extended period of time. This problem can be accelerated if you don’t use hydraulic oil with the right viscosity to withstand high temperatures. Always follow the instructions provided by the hose manufacturer.
Exceeding these temperature guidelines can diminish hose life by as much as 80%. Acceptable temperatures can range from -65° F (Hytrel and winterized rubber compounds) to 400° F (Hytrel and winterized rubber compounds) (PTFE). When hoses are exposed to a turbo manifold or another heat source, external temperatures become an issue.
Hose service life is significantly reduced when they are exposed to high exterior and internal temperatures at the same time. Insulating sleeves can help shield hoses from hot equipment parts and other potentially dangerous high-temperature sources. To protect hydraulic fluid from a potential source of ignition in these scenarios, an extra barrier is normally necessary.
Will the hose selected meet the bend radius requirements? A hydraulic hose’s minimum bend radius (typically measured in inches) must be met. Excessive bend radius (using a radius smaller than recommended) may likely harm the hose reinforcement and shorten its life.
When possible, run high-pressure hydraulic lines parallel to machine contours. By shortening lines and reducing the amount of hard-angle, flow-restricting bends, this method can help save money. This type of routing can help safeguard cables from external damage and make maintenance easier.
Materials – A compatibility chart must be utilized to ensure that the tube compound is compatible with the fluid in the system. The chemical compatibility of the tube and fluid will be affected by increased temperature, fluid contamination, and concentration. Petroleum-based oils are compatible with the majority of hydraulic hoses. It’s worth noting that some hoses may have issues with new biodegradable or green fluids.
Pressure capability – The working pressure of the hose must always be greater than or equal to the maximum system pressure, even if there are pressure spikes. Hose life will be considerably reduced if pressure spikes exceed the published working pressure.
Hose ends – The mechanical interface between the coupling and the hose must be compatible with the hose chosen. The right mating thread end must be chosen to ensure leak-free sealing when the mating components are connected.
Most types of hose have two types of couplings: permanent and field-attachable. Permanent couplings are utilized largely by equipment makers, large-scale rebuilders, and maintenance shops.
Powered machinery is used to cold-form permanently fastened couplings onto the hose. Most rubber and thermoplastic hoses may be fitted with them, and they provide a wide range of dependable couplings at a reasonable cost. Field assembly with portable machines is quite simple; these equipment are cost-effective and simple to operate. In most circumstances, skiving the cover is unnecessary. The installation of these couplings is less difficult than that of other varieties.
Screw-together and clamp-type couplings are two types of field-attachable couplings. The hose is attached to the screw-together coupling by rotating the outer coupling shell over the hose’s outside diameter. The coupling insert is then inserted into the coupling shell and tightened in place. A clamp-type coupling is made consisting of a two-piece outer shell that clamps onto the hose OD with two or four bolts and nuts.
Because the threads distort during attachment, the coupling has little possibility for reuse in either circumstance.
The number of threads per inch and thread diameter of the original coupling must be determined to ensure that the correct coupling is used when replacing an assembly. The number of threads per inch can be determined using thread pitch gages. The internal and exterior dimensions of the threads can be measured with a caliper. Male couplings are used to measure ODs, while female couplings are used to measure IDs.
The thread configuration and seat angle are the only distinctions between an SAE and an imported coupling in most cases. International thread ends can be metric (measuring in millimeters) or BSP (British Standard Pipe) threads (measuring in inches). Knowing the country of origin can help you figure out what kind of thread end is being used. DIN (Deutsche Industrial Norme) fittings originated in Germany and are now used throughout Europe, whereas British equipment uses BSP. Other Japanese equipment is likely to utilize JIS (Japanese Industrial StandardBSP threads) or, in some cases, BSP with straight or tapered threads, while Komatsu machinery employs Komatsu fittings with metric threads.
- Inverted (BSPP & DIN), standard (JIS & Komatsu), or flat seat (flange, flat-face)
- Metric (DIN or Komatsu), BSP (BSPP, BSPT, or JIS), or tapered threads (BSPT or JIS Tapered)
The following SAE standards apply to hydraulic/pneumatic fittings and assemblies that are specifically designed to prevent leakage:
What is the product’s availability in terms of delivery? Is it distinct? What is the estimated delivery time to the distributor or end user? To optimize flexibility and reduce delays caused by relying on components that are unavailable or in low supply, it may be advantageous to examine alternative solutions.
Can I use propane hose for natural gas?
Natural gas or propane are used to power many furnaces and appliances.
Natural gas is a mixture of gases that can be found underground, including butane, propane, and methane. It can exist as a liquid, a compressed or uncompressed gas, or both.
Propane gas, commonly known as liquefied petroleum gas or LPG, is extracted from natural gas and stored as a liquid.
Appliances that run on natural gas or propane are available for use in the house. The two cannot be used interchangeably; each fuel source necessitates the use of unique gas usage fittings. You’ll need a conversion kit from the appliance’s maker for the installation process if you wish to move between the two. There is no conversion process for electric appliances such as heaters, ovens, or water heaters; instead, you must replace the equipment with one that is expressly designed for natural gas or propane.
Natural gas is a utility that is only available in particular places, with subterranean pipelines transporting the gas into the residence. Propane is stored in tanks that must be refilled and replaced on a regular basis. Some containers are small enough to be carried around, while others are huge enough to be buried underground. Burying a tank is similar to connecting your home to a natural gas pipeline.
You’ll need to get rid of your propane tank or have it emptied and left in place if you transition from propane to natural gas or stop using propane and switch to electric appliances. It’s difficult to get it out of the ground, but once you’ve done so, you can sell it to someone else.
Propane has the advantage of being able to be transported to any location. Natural gas is subject to pipeline availability and whether it is available in your area. Installation and refilling of propane are both dependent on delivery. After a big storm or another disaster, you can run out of gas. Natural gas is constantly available because it is connected by pipelines.
Propane is normally more expensive than natural gas, but it delivers almost twice as much heat in the same amount. The cost of using one over the other is heavily influenced by where you live. In many areas, though, both types are more efficient and less expensive than electricity. Installing a new natural gas line can be costly, but the investment could save you money in the long run.
Your decision to upgrade may be influenced by the appliances you already own. A furnace, whether it runs on natural gas, propane, or electricity, has a lifespan of roughly twenty years. Electric ranges have a fifteen-year lifespan. However, if you’re remodeling and replacing your home’s appliances, now might be a good time to improve your fuel system as well.
The gases natural gas and propane are both colorless and odorless. Manufacturers add a nontoxic chemical called mercaptan to give it the unique odor of rotten eggs or sulfur to aid detect gas leaks. Put out any flames and go outside if you notice a scent in your home. Then dial 911 and wait for emergency personnel to arrive to check that your home is secure.
What kind of hose is fuel safe?
When abrasion resistance is required, PTFE hose is the way to go. A black PVC cover or a stainless steel cover is offered. The inside liner is PTFE, while the stainless steel outside is 308 stainless steel braid (if you pick that option). This pipe is suitable for nitromethane and alcohol fuel systems.